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CLST 129 (191)
Lecture 2

Clst 129 lecture 2 2013/2014

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Classical Studies
CLST 129
M Barbara Reeves

Clst 129 Lecture 2 September 11  Topic 2: Introduction to Ancient Mediterranean Cultures 1: The Neolithic Revolution, Mesopotamia and Egypt o Archaeologists only look for finds 2.5 million years old max.  Earlier human records exist. o Early Humans  Stone tools  Humans began in Africa before spreading  Earliest Humans were hunter/gatherers  Dependent on seasonal variations of animals and plants.  Moved around often to find new food sources.  Small Objects related to their lifestyle. o Crude and easy to construct. o Huts of skin/wood o Had to be light – they moved a lot. o Leather and wood leaves no Archaeological record.  Same with fish and wool o Would make more tools when they wore out. o Stone does not decay.  2.5 Million Years old  Would hit stones until they had sharp edges for tools.  100s of thousands of years later  Used tools to make other tools.  Tools had a precise form/use  100,000 years ago  They would take a stone and use tools to remove sharp stone flakes. Flakes would then be used to make better tools.  Paleolithic  Old stone age.  35,000 to 10,000 years ago  Tools made of bone.  Tools had very specific purposes  “Ages” made by Archaeologists to divide human record for easy classification  Evolution of tools displays evolution of human mind.  Took 2.5 million years for this.  Wisdom is passed from old to young.  Old paleolithic stone age paintings.  No domesticated animals  Paintings suggest free time  Paintings suggest an animal focused culture  Done to pass on knowledge o The ability to think about time is what separates us from animals.  Learning how to draw/make drawings.  Religious plea before a hunt – “give us this”  Emphasis not on them, they never show up.  Gives us information on a group of cultures we would otherwise know little about  Lived in the caves they painted  Paleolithic figurines  Mammoth ivory  Soft stones  Clay o Placed in fire to harden  Do show humans – emphasis on them  Speculation on meaning of human bodies o Lot of fat – not appropriate for on the move society. o Having fat sign of prosperity o Could have to do with fertility  Are they showing real people or a god/ess? o Goddesses have better lifestyle –
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