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Lecture 2

Clst 200 lecture 2 2013/2014

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 200

Clst 200 Lecture 2 September 12  The Mycenaeans o C. 1600 – C. 1200/1100 o First group to speak recognizably Greek language  Some connection with Minoans  This is an archeological time with no records telling us when/what things happened.  We can work out what happened through the physical remains o Particularly pottery  Named after site “Mycenae”  Stereotypically thought to be a warrior culture  Organized military style culture. o No formal empire.  The Cycladics, Minoans, and Mycenaeans all developed around the Aegean sea.  Other Mycenaean sites near Athens, Sparta, and Pylos  Cycladics were succeeded by the Minoans o Minoans lived on Crete o Precedes Mycenaeans by 2000 o Phase 1  Start point of 1600  Came to Greece 1900’s B.C.  No physical remains until 1600  They were settling and absorbing everything around them.  Circle B  A grave circle  Marked later by a surrounding wall  Burials were in rectangular shafts  Re-usable  24 burials here  Signs of broken pottery o Possible evidence of Rites  Marked off because the people being buried were special/rich  Circle A  Dug by Schliemann in 1870  17 graves with a similar shaft style.  Rich goods buried  Marked off as an important location.  Walls o Defense could be possibly for internal enemies. o Mycenaeans had some cause to worry about security. o Walls would also enclose palace area.  There are signs of possible ancestor worship  Gold/gold related objects were found in tombs o Schliemann named the golden face the “face of Agamemnon”  Mask is much earlier than that  Gold working and incision work were remarkable  Possibly crafted by others than the Mycenaeans  Based on techniques earlier seen as far as Syria. o Imported workers?  Gold most likely came from Egypt or even further such as Lydia.  Hunting images also found o Hunting is popular in Mycenaean art  Hunting would be enjoyable for elites and could be used for training for warfare.  Artistic achievement and technique are important.  Many exotic animals such as lions shown.  Electrum o A mix of gold and silver.  Schliemann  Found Jewels while searching for Troy and gave to his wife. o Called the jewels “the treasure of Priam”  Gold mask o Some believe its a forgery o Others believe it is a death mask.  Mycenaean tholos  A type of tomb  Called a beehive tomb by archaeologists  Start off relatively small and are massive structures by the end of the period.  Used massive and curved stones  Remarkable feat of engineering and command  Started C. 1500 o Shows that the Mycenaeans have developed a strong command of men and materials. o They would use specialized stones found far away.  Entranceway was called a Dromos.  Treasure of Atreus o Found by Schliemann o Atreus founder of line of Agamemnon  Don’t know who was buried there.  People were buried in center shafts or in side rooms. o They were also re-usable.  Massive tools by the end of our period.  By Phase 1 they are making their entrance into the eastern mediterranean stage through their architecture and their imports. o Phase 2  C. 1450 – C. 1200/1100  Mycenaeans occupied Crete by 1450.  No history of why they were there/what they were doing.  Volcano on santorini erupted around then. o May have affected island of Crete and had an impact on the Minoans.  May have come in then  Knossos  Minoans culture linked solely to Crete.  Mycenaeans expanded to Knossos o They would adopt others cultural techniques and began to build palaces such as those the Minoans built. o Imposed themselves over the Minoans and merged the Minoans into themselves.  Megaron  Palaces  Difference in palaces location o Mycenaean palaces were on high ground o Minoan palaces were on low ground. o Both had drainage o Both had a fresco style of art  Mycenaeans style was slightly different.  Cyclopean o Huge blocks of stone o Typical of Mycenaean culture  Greeks named them Cyclopean for their size.  Maybe learned the technique for moving them from Egypt.  Megaron
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