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Lecture 4

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 200

Clst 200 Lecture 4  End of the late Bronze Age c. 1600-c.1200  Many cities and settlements were attacked and burned o Archaeological records show a burned layer o Damages at Knossos, Troy, Pylos, Mycenae, Iolcos, etc  Palace system economical record keeping disappeared completely  People were moving about a lot o Relocating or fleeing  Transitioning to the dark age we see a lot of iron being smelted  End of the Bronze age o Depopulation o Lack of culture (no statues etc) o Disruption goes as far as Mesopotamia o “Worldwide Catastrophe”  By 1250, Mycenaeans are fortifying their sites. o Watchers on the coast are possibly on lookout o Mycenaeans are nervous about others  Trade diminishes  At Troy o Between 1250 and 1150 it is damage and burned  Could have to do with Trojan war  Islands in the south – central Aegean show no signs of damage or anything  Patchy look at this time period  Attack on Egypt by “Sea peoples” who come from the north o Perhaps coming by land and sea o Made up of many different groups o Distinguished by their clothing and head wear  People attacking could be displaced Mycenaeans o Egypt was a great place to live at the end of the Late Bronze Age  Attackers wanted a better home.  Scholars doubt attacking forces were united o Egypt defeats attacking Northerners o Only evidence is from Egypt and is most likely biased by the pharaoh because he wants the records from his time to show him and his empire as successful  System collapse o Palaces could have fought amongst each other and killed each other off. o Possible natural disasters / climate change  Earthquakes occur in Cyprus and in southern Greece o Price of grain was rising astronomically  Could have been result of very bad drought  People started to starve after using surplus  Possible famine o Most likely a mix of all of the above  Collapse of Pylos o Last tablet ends halfway through describing an attack.  Happened at other palaces as well o Pylos suffered series of attacks  Tablet: o Shows a pharaoh, holding all his enemies by their hair, he will chop all their heads off with his blade  Period of great decline o By 1050 Egypt is in a period of weakness  Dialects of the Greek language o Doric (Sparta) o Ionic (Atticka) o Aeolic o Movement of peoples from west to east th  Athenian empire by the 5 century o Theucydites: says right after Trojan war Athe
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