Caesar – consul in 59BC
M. Calpurnius BIBLIUS as colleague
60BC – First Triumvirate – Caesar, Pompey and Crassus (Pompey married Julia,
Caesar: wanted command of a province and army after his consulship
Pompey: ratification of his Eastern acta and land for his veterans
Crassus: reduction in contracts for (publicanii=equestrian) tax-collectors in Asia.
59 – Tribune Vatinius gave Caesar the stuff he wanted
Caesar: governor of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum with 3 legions for 5 years, March
Also got Tranalpine Gaul and one additional legion when that governor.
Starts in March – he has to be consul and proconsul at the same time?!
5 year set length basically gives him immunity for any wrongdoing – can only be
charged the year after consular or proconsular position.
Lex Julia de Repetundis: extortion law, designed to protect populance of provinces.
Acta Diurna – daily record of all acts of assembly, motions passed, etc.
Republic basically controlled by the Triumvirate alone – the beginning of the end
for the Republic.
Before Caesar departed from Rome for Gaul, Triumvirates wanted to remove their
two biggest opponents, Cicero and Cato.
P. Clodius Pulcher (92-52). Tribune in 58. Was a disreputable shit-disturber
(caught in drag in Caesar’s house – check out last notes). He ruled the city with
armed thugs when Caesar left.
Clodius was pissed Cicero had witnessed against him, ruined his alibi.
When he got made tribune, made the reduced grain into a free dole. Drove Cicero
from Rome by passing a law that anyone who killed a citizen without trial -
“deprived of fire and water” (remember, Cicero killed the 5 conspirators without due process).
Cicero voluntarily went into exile without awaiting trial. He was formally
banished, his property confiscated, and he took refuge in Theselonica in
Still need to get rid of Cato
Clodius carried a law assigning him to a special mission to govern the island of
Cyprus (which Rome now controlled, took from Egypt’s Ptolomy).
Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, 58-51. Fought the Helvetians (modern Switzerland),
Riots in Rome, all semblance of order gone, senate was very weak.
Clodius, with his free dole, had made himself king of the plebs. His armed gangs
controlled everything, roamed around burning houses and throwing stones at his
Caesar gone – now Pompey and Crassus don’t really like each other anymore.
Pompey had broken away from Clodius, supported a different tribune, MILO.
Titus Annius MILO. Formed an opposition gang to that headed by Clodius.
Pompey pressed for Cicero’s return from exile; Clodius pissed, veto’d; gang wars.
Pompey took refuge from political life, shut up in his own house. Returned to
political life in summer of 57, after Clodius had lost his power (Milo’s gang won,
he wasn’t reelected). Pompey sponsored a bill authorizing Cicero’s return from
57 – Cicero recalled from exile. Got his property and wealth back; house rebuilt at
public expense. Pompey was popular again.
Pompey used grain famine in Rome to seize command of grain supply – Ccurator
ANNONAE (curator of the grain supply). Very important, could basically start a
riot whenever he wanted by stopping grain supply. Kept this position for 5 years.
This position had proconsular imperium in Italy and abroad, control of ports,
markets, and grain train within Roman jurisdiction. Basically,it was a lot like
extraordinary military command. Crasus was the only one of the original 3 who didn’t gain power.
Caesar thought the Triumvirate needed new goals, work out differences and future
plans. They had a conference.
56 – Conference at Luca.
But first, let’s look at what Caesar was getting up to in Gaul.
Caesar’s conquest of Gaul
governor of Transalpine Gaul (aka Gallia Narbonensis) Encompasses entire south
coastal France, from Spain to Alps; plus area from River Rome to alps as far North
as Lake Geneva.
also governor of Cisalpine Gaul
Gallia Comata “long haired Gaul” – the rest of Gaul, not Rome
3 parts: Aquitania – southwest, between Pyrranese and contral France
Lugdunensis - central region in North, from sea to Sienne. Celts.
Belgica – from Sienne to Rhine (Rhenus??). Belgian gauls and people of
In Caesar’s transalpine gaul, lots of celts, Liberians, etc. Mostly Celts: Celtic
language, governing class of Celtic descent. Celts were most advanced beyond
Mediteranean coast: did agriculture, livestock, metalworking. Because close to
Masillia, the Greek trading city (modern Marseille), Gauls had learned arts of
commerce; from 6 century on, trade spread upwards into river valleys of Gaul.
Greek coinage was thus widely in use throughout Gaul.
Most political orgs were heiristocracies, which feuded among themselves.
Gauls conscience of general unity of race, language, customs, etc., Gauls had not
developed a national state due to the mutual jealousy of the individual tribes.
Rivalry between tribes was sometimes so intense, one Gaullic state would appeal
to a foreign nation for aid against another Gaullic nation.
Gaullic military – poorly trained, a bit disorganized, but a kickass infantry.
Awesome with horses. Gauls were illiterate, except for Druids. Druids formed
influential religious body, observed traditions and served as judges.
Druid – Gallic priests. Druids believed in the immortality of the soul. They performed their worship of
gods in sacred groves; even did some human sacrifice.
58 – Caesar entered Transalpine Gaul – this was his “launching pad” for his
campaigns to capture whole country.
Caesar wanted undying support of