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Classical Studies
CLST 201

Test will cover until end of Caesar’s civil campaigns – Chapter 5 p98 – 8 p160. Mostly 6, 7, and 8. How important are dates? Name of battle is more important, but you should definitely try for dates. Be able to make a connection between battle and date. Wk08L01 – THIS IS ON THE TEST. Reminder: Last week, we looked at Caesar’s Gaullic campaigns, and Caesar beating Pompey in Pharsalus in Thesole, in August 48BC. Important date. Pompey fled to Egypt, picked up Cornelia on route. Pompey beheaded by one of his advisors. His body left to rot on Egyptian shores. Caesar pursued Pompey; arrives after Pompey’s death. While Caesar was in Egypt, got “involved” with Cleopatra – bow chicka wow wow. Caesar stayed to settle dispute between Ptolomy XIII and Cleopatra VII – put Cleopatra on the throne. Incurred the anger of the people of Alexandria, who had originally driven her out. Caesar also offended the Egyptian royal advisors, he was besieged by their army in Alexandria in winter 48-47. Caesar only had 1 legion; under attack by Ptolomy’s troops and the revolting mob of Alexandirans. Survived because he controlled the sea – eventually received reinforcements. In spring, two legions arrived – Battle of Alexandria. One legion was from Mithridates of Pergamum (not the one form Pontus), who invaded Egypt through Syria. Ptolomy fled, drowned in the Nile. Cleopatra then married younger brother, Ptolomy XIV, they were given crown of Egypt. In spring of 47, Caesar FINALLY departed from Egypt (he hung around for Cleo) to deal with a new threat: Pharnaces II, son of Mithridates VI of Pontus. Pharnaces had taken advantage of civil war to capture Pontus, lesser Armenia, and Cappadocia in Asia minor. Caesar goes over land, through Syria, to Pontus. 47 – Battle of Zela (in Pontus), defeats Pharnaces. Caesar had won all of Asia minor back in 5 days, so fast, he announced: “Veni, Vidi, Vici” – I came, I saw I conquered. Went to Italy in the summer of 47. Caesar appointed dictator for the second time, Marc Antony was his mast of army or something. Caesar realized that chaos reigned in Rome, due to debts and stuff from war. Antony couldn’t handle it; Caesar did. He was confronted with a mutiny of his soldiers, who demanded money, land, and retirement. Caesar convinced them to stay “by his mere presence.” 47 – Caesar leaves for Africa in the fall, where the Optimates had regrouped under Cato. 46 – Battle of Thapsus – defeats Pompeians/Optimates. Cato’s army reinforced by King Juba of Numibia. The governor of Africa, Metellus Scipio, Pompeys father, soon replaced Cato as commander. Labienus, once Caesar’s right hand man, also fought for the Pompeians. Caesar initially struggled with lmited troops, but then got reinforcements, seiged Thapsus. Kicked ass against super incompetent Metellus Scipio. Cato had been left in charge of Pompeian garrison at Utica. When he heard of Scipio’s defeat, Cato decided that the republic was dead - Cato commits suicide, heroic example of stoicism (wtf, Romans?) Caesar super annoyed he couldn’t beat Cato and then spare his life apparently. Caesar returned to Rome, a thanksgiving of forty days was held to commemorate his victories over Gauls, Egypt (Alexandria), Asia (Zela), Juba. Downplays victories against Pompey in Pharsalus and Scipio in Thapsus. Basically, only Spain left. So he goes to Spain. 46 – Caesar goes to Spain with 8 legions. To face Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, Pompey’s sons, plus Labeinus, who had took control of survivors from Africa. March 45 – battle of Munda – defeats Gnaeus and Sextus and Labienus. Literally fought an uphill battle. Despite fewer legions, Caesar won. Labienus killed in battle; Gnaeus Pompeius fled, killed later. Sextus Pompeius survived; eventually fights against Augustus Caesar. October 45 – celebrated another triumph to commemorate his Spanish conquest. Caesar now rule
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