PARTHIA: diplomatic settlement
20 BC - King Phraates IV – agreed to return Roman standards and prisoners captured at Carrhae
in 53 BC in exchange for his son, who Rome captured. Didnt for a few years, so Rome sent an
army, Phraates got scared, gave them their stuff.
Caesar was super proud, this was an awesome thing for him.
Signis Receptis – Stanadards regained
Civis et - Citizens and military standards recovered from the Parthians.
**Helpful hint: Lots of reserouces in the back of text. Need to know the important Julio-
Claudian family tree, glossery, and timeline (I‟ve been doing my own like a fool. FUCK).
14 AD – Augustus died, after 41 years of reign (from 27BC).
Few alive even remembered the Republic. He had firmly established the principate, organized a
great system of administration for the empire, supported traditional conservative views, was all
Who would succeed him? “The Succession Problem,” very original name.
Augustus himself had been adopted by Caesar to become his heir. Augustus had no son of his
own; he would likewise designate a successor to keep the Princeps role in the family
(establishing a Julio-Claudian dynasty). Had already tried several times.
23BC Marcellus – nephew and son in law (Julias first choice). He died in 23.
12BC – Agrippa – Julia‟s second husband, his BFF. Had proconsular imperium and tribunician
power in 18. Died in 12.
Grandsons – Adopted in 17bc, when they were 3 and 0 years old - Gaius Caesar (died in 4AD in
Parthia) and Lucius Caesar (died in 2AD, fever). Children of Agrippa and Julia.
4 AD - Tiberius – stepson and son in law; Livia‟s son from first marriage. But, now it‟s going
outside the bloodline. To cement the choice and please Augustus, he divorced his wife
(Agrippa‟s daughter) and married Julia, Augustus‟ daughter (who had been married twice, and
involved in some scandals). “Dynastic marriage.” At the same time, his remaining grandson, Agrippa Postumus (brother of Gaius and Lucuis) was
adopted. Keeping his options open. (Heir + spare). Postumus later banished to Pandateria, shitty
Ad 4 – Tiberius granted proconsular imperium in provinces. 10 year grant in tribunician power
(tribunicia potestas), renewed in 13 ad.
Tiberius was also required to adopt Germanicus, his nephew (son of Drusus, very popular).
Augustus thus set to the precedent of choosing successor by adoption and association in holding
powers (granting of political power).
Smooth transition when Augustus died at 77. He was immediately deified, so Tiberius (age 55)
could also be the son of a god.
Tiberius was born TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NIRO to Livia and father of same name. He was 4
when Livia married Octavia; 11 when Augustus won at Actium and took control. Tiberius went
through corsus honurum very fast, as his mother was the emperess.
23 BC – quaestor (Marcellus, dynastic rival, died)
17 bc – praetor
13 bc – consul (age 29)
Also, lots of military stuff:
20bc – sent to place king on Armenian throne. He brought back legionary standards and
prisoners lost at Carrhae.
akldjfladf – Him and Drusus took on the East. Married Agrippa‟s daughter, Vipsania.
12BC – Death of Agrippa. Augustus made Niro marry Julia. Niro lved his first wife; Julia hated
him, lots of obvious lovers.
Triumphal distinctions for subduing Dalmatians, Panonia, Germanic tribes.
Embarassed by Julia, retreated to Rhodes to study stuff. Julia banished. Only returned to Rome in
2AD, when Lucius Caesar died. In 4AD, when the other heir died, Tiberius and Postumus
adopted. Given lots of power, paraded in front of armies as the new heir apparent.
4 – 14ad – got lots of political experience, groomed to be emperor, returned to Dalmatia Panonia,
was an awesome general.
At this time, main goal was to get to Elbe.
AD4, 5 – plans to go East, but had to go deal with uprising in Dalmatia and Panonia.
6 – Armenius annihilates legions and WHATS HIS FACE. From 9AD-12AD, Tiberius got
revenge with tons of awesome wins. Got a triumph. 13 – renew of tribuician power.
Once Princeps (14-37), he never left Italy.
Tiberius was purely Claudian – Claudian gains by birth, only Julian by birth. Tiberius was the
only one of Augustus‟ chosen heirs to not be Julian. Obviously, Julia super key in getting this
Augustus had also adopted Agrippa Postumus as a a backup, and made Tiberius adopt his
popular nephew Germanicus (Drusus‟ son) even though Tiberius had a biological son. Tiberius
had to be dedicated.
Why Germanicus? He represented the best of both families, with Julian and Claudian blood in
equal amounts. Son of Drusus (Claudia), mother was Antonia (Augustus‟ niece, daughter of
Octavia). Was Augustus‟ grand-nephew (same as Augustus to Caesar). Germanicus, married to
elder Agrippina (a Julian, Augustus‟ granddaughter, Julia and Agrippa‟s daughter, died in 33).
Augustus died. Livia honoured with name “Augusta.” Senate gave Tiberius the powers that were
the prerogatives of the Princeps: lifetime imperium, etc. Very smooth transition. Tiberius was 55,
highly experienced in government and military. But, when called upon to uide state policy,
displayed hesitation (his unhappy marriage and previous divorce had made him suspicious).
Apparently he was totally lacking charm of Augustus; cruel (but suppressed it), arrogant, dour in
general. Public and family didn‟t like it. Only reluctantly did he accept Emperor position. But, he
tried to uphold Augustus‟ example, and respected Senate.
In 14AD, transferred from assembl