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Classical Studies
CLST 201
Margaret Erskine

Julius CaesarAugustus ndLate Republican to early imperial 2 c BCto AD 138LivyHistory can be very beneficial to study because of the lessons it teachesndAt the height of its power in the 2 century Ad it stretched from Britain in the North Spain in the West Egypt to the South and the Euphrates river in the EastThe descendants of civlications such as the Egyptians phonetians and the Greeks about 70 million people were subject to Roman ruleRoman empire last until 476 in the west and 1453 in the East until the fall of Constantinople in 1453Site of ancient Rome occupied a group of seven hills overlooking the tiber river 15 miles in from the Tyrrhenian sea on the Western coast of Italy midway along the peninsulaDeveloped from a small settlement into a more unified village community then grew into a larger and more organized city state establishing itself as the dominant urban centre and rapidly conquered peninsular Italy and then expanded its dominion oversea and then emerged as the leader of a vast Mediterranean wide empirendBy early 2 c AD after Julius and augustus Rome was so formidable a political and military power that it was deemed capot mundi head of the world Foundations of Early Rome Fall of Troy1184 BC according to the ancient chronological tradition Origins of Rome are uncertain Romans created their own foundation legend Drawing on various greek Etruscan and roman originsPrinciple greek contribution to the foundation story of Rome was the introduction of the warrior Aeneas Virgil rote his masterpiece epic Aenied wrote about Aeneas who was the son of Venus He was a Trojan thprince who escaped the flames of troy as the burning city fell to the besieging Greeks in the 12 century BCAeneas fled to the sea finally arrived in Latium where he founded a city called Lavinium named after his wife Lavinia He formed a new race of people by uniting his own Trojan followers and the regions natives latins He sired a long line of kings that would one day establish RomeHe lost his first wife in the flames of troy he remarried in LatiumAeneas is depicted by Latin writers as the ancestor of all Romans From the ashes of troy arose the glory of RomeThis story connects the Romans to one of the most important events in Greek myth celebrated in the poems of homer illiad and odysseyEstablishes define ancestry for the RomansVenus AeneasIulusRomans are descended from the God of loveIulius founded the city of Alba LongaAmong the kings that ruled at Alba Long was Aventinus who drowned in the Tiber river Aventinus sun had a daughter named Rhea Silvia She was ravished by the Roman god of war Mars and whenever those Gods ravish a human the human becomes pregnant She had two twin boys named Romulus and RemusRemus became the Eponymous founder of the city of Rome named after himIt is the privilege of antiquity to mix divine things with human The Romans can claim descent from two divinities Venus and Mars who are the deities of love and warRomulus and Remus AeneasThe national epic of Rome the Aeneid of Vergil tells the story of how the Trojan prince Aeneas came to Italy The Aeneid was written under Augustus who claimed ancestry through Julius Caesar from the hero and his mother Venus According to the Aeneid the survivors from the fallen city of Troy banded together under Aeneas underwent a series of adventures around the Mediterranean Sea including a stop at newly founded Carthage under the rule of Queen Dido and eventually reached the Italian coast The Trojans were thought to have landed in an area between modern Anzio and Fiumicino southwest of Rome probably at Laurentum or in other versions at Lavinium a place named for Lavinia the daughter of King Latinus whom Aeneas married Through a series of armed conflicts the Trojans won the right to stay and to assimilate with the local peoples The young son of Aeneas Ascanius also known as Iulus went on to found Alba Longa and the line of Alban kings who filled the chronological gap between the Trojan saga and the traditional founding of Rome in the 8th century BC Toward the end of this line King Procas was the father of Numitor and Amulius At Procas death Numitor became king of Alba Longa but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison he also forced the daughter of Numitor Rhea Silvia to become a virgin priestess among the Vestals For many years Amulius was then the king The tortuous nature of the chronology is indicated by Rhea Silvias ordination among the Vestals whose order was traditionally said to have been founded by the successor of Romulus Numa PompiliusRomulus and RemusRomulus and Remus are the twin brothers and central characters of Romes foundation myth Their mother is Rhea Silvia daughter to Numitor king of Alba Longa Before their conception Numitors brother Amulius seizes power kills Numitors male heirs and forces Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin sworn to chastity Rhea Silvia conceives the twins by the god Mars or by the demigod Hercules once the twins were born Amulius has them abandoned to die in the river Tiber They are saved by a series of miraculous interventions the river carries them to safety a shewolf finds and suckles them and a woodpecker feeds them A shepherd and his wife find them and foster them to manhood as simple shepherds The twins still ignorant of their true origins prove to be natural leaders Each acquires many followers When they discover the truth of their birth they kill Amulius and restore Numitor to his throne Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa they choose to found a new cityRomulus wants to found the new city on the Palatine Hill Remus prefers the Aventine Hill They agree to determine the site through augury but when each claims the results in his own favor they quarrel and Remus is killed Romulus founds the new city names it Rome after himself and creates its first legions and senate The new city grows rapidly swelled by landless refugees as most of these are male and unmarried Romulus arranges the abduction of women from the neighboring Sabines The ensuing war ends with the joining of Sabines and Romans as one Roman people Thanks to divine favour and Romulus inspired leadership Rome becomes a dominant force but Romulus himself becomes increasingly autocratic and disappears or dies in mysterious circumstances In later forms of the myth he ascends to heaven and is identified with Quirinus the divine personification of the Roman peopleDeath of RomulusAccording to the legend Romulus mysteriously disappeared in a storm or whirlwind during or shortly after offering public sacrifice at or near the Quirinal Hill A foul suspicion arises that the Senate weary of kingly government and exasperated of late by the imperious deportment of Romulus toward them had plotted against his life and made him away so that they might assume the authority and government into their own hands This suspicion they sought to turn aside by decreeing divine honors to Romulus as to one not dead but translated to a higher condition And Proculus a man of note took oath that he saw Romulus caught up into heaven in his arms and vestments and heard him as he ascended cry out that they should hereafter style him by the name of QuirinusRomulus QuirinusEnnius fl 180s BC refers to Romulus as a divinity without reference to Quirinus whom Roman mythographers identified as an originally Sabine wardeity and thus to be identified with Roman Mars Lucilius lists Quirinus and Romulus as separate deities and Varro accords them different temples Images of Quirinus showed him as a bearded warrior wielding a spear as a god of war the embodiment of Roman strength and a deified likeness of the city of Rome He had a Flamen Maior called the Flamen Quirinalis who oversaw his worship and rituals in the ordainment of Roman religion attributed to Romulus royal successor Numa Pompilius There is however no evidence for the conflated RomulusQuirinus before the 1st century BC Ovid in Book 14 lines 812828 of the Metamorphoses gives a description of the deification of Romulus and his wife Hersilia who are given the new names of Quirinus and Hora respectively Mars the father of Romulus is given permission by Jupiter to bring his son up to Olympus to live with the Olympians Ovid uses the words of Ennius as a direct quote and puts them into the mouth of the King of the Gods There shall be one whom you shall raise to the blue vault of heaven Ovid then uses a simile to describe the change that Romulus undertakes as he ascends to live with the Olympians as leaden balls from a broad sling melt in mid sky Finer his features now and worthier of heavens highraised couch his lineaments those of Quirinus in his robe of stateLivyAb Urbe ConditaTraces of human settlements existed on the low hills around Rome they lived in mere humble huts
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