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Classical Studies
CLST 201
Margaret Erskine

Back of book for exam help. Chart of important people. Chronology. Latin phrases. Parthia: diplomatic settlement. 20 BC, King Phraates IV -> returned roman standards and prisoners captured at Carrhae in 53 BC. Originally agreed to do so, but decided not to. But after pressure/threats from Rome to raise a new king in Armenia, Parthia king Phraates IV agreed to return the standard. Big diplomatic victory. Signis Receptis Civibus et Signis Militaribus (Armenia recaptured). When Augustus died after 44 years. Few alive even remember the republic. Augustus was conservative, promoting traditional values, family, ancient customs. Augustus was first princep, and firs julio claudian rulers. In AD 14, as Augustus’ reign draws to a close. Problem with succession arose. Succession Problem. Augustus has no sons, but wish to have someone in family to be successor, to continue julio claudian ruler, and prevent civil war. Marcellus -> nephew and son in law. Julia’s first husband. Choice of successor. Marcellus died in 23BC prematurely. Agrippa -> Julia’s second husband, son-in-law. Tribunition power. Also died in 12BC. Gaius & Lucius Caesar -> grandsons. Children of Agrippa and Julia. Gaius died in AD 4. Lucius died in AD 2 from fever. Tiberius → adopted stepson and son-in-law. Tiberius forced to divorce his wife, and marry Julia. A marriage to cement Tiberius’ succession as next emperor. Adopted grandson Agrippa Postumus. Tiberius + Julia → Dynastic marriage Julia banished to island of pandateria (2BC) Augustus required Tiberius required to adopt Germanicus (Drusus’ son, Augustus’ nephew). Tiberius granted in AD 4 proconsular imperium, 10 year period of tribunician power. Renewed in AD 14 (when Augustus died). Augustus set the trend of association of holding powers and adoption. Augustus died when 77, immediately deified. Tiberius pronounced son of a god. Tiberius → adopted AD 4 → granted imperoum proconsulare → 10 year tribunicia potesta (renewed AD 13) 2 Keys to designating one’s succesor: -- adoption -- association in holding power Tiberius: parents fled from perusia 11 when stepfather became undisputed power of roman empire Mother is now the Empress. Goes through cursus honorum quick. Questor in 23BC. (Same year Marcellus died) Praetor in 17BC Consul in age of 29. Tiberius also held important military commands, 20BC sent out to the East to deal with Armenian throne. Brings back the legionary standard (from Parthia) lost by Crasus. Tiberius and younger brother drusus subdued moutain enemies. uncle Agrippa at the time is marked out as Augustus’ successor. Agrippa death at 12BC had effects on Tiberius’ life. Compelled by Augustu’s to divorce wife (who was deeply attached) to marry Julia. Supplanting his deceased father in law as husband. Julia detested him. When brother Drusus died in 9BC, Tiberius took over campaigns in German, rewarded for triumphant distinctions and consulships. Tiberius embarred by Julia’s shameful conduct. Starts to purse astrology. Julia banished to an island in 2BC. Tiberius not permitted to return to Rome until death of Gaius and Lucius (2AD, 4AD). Death of all Augustus’ heir, exept Postumus. Augustus designated Tiberius as successor. Paraded to the Roman army as heir apparent. Tiberius gained much valuable political experience under Augustus groomed for princeps. Front rank reputation among Roman generals. Tries to complete conquest of Germany. Extend frontier from Rhine to Alps. Suppressed rebellion in Dalmatian. Tiberius successfully waged war in Germany in AD9 to 12, to restore frontier. Rewarded in AD 13 with renewal of tribunician power and proconsular imperium. News of Augustus’ final ills brings him back to Rome. Stayed in Italy for 23 years until his death. Second of the Julio- Claudian Emperors. Ancestry purely Claudian. Claudian name by birth. Member of Julian clan by adoption by Augustus. Only one of the four Julio-Claudian emperors to lack Julian blood. Augustus left opportunity open in the future for schemes to promote near family and relatives. Compelled Tiberius to adopt popular nephew Germanicus, even though Tiberius has a biological son of his own by his original wife. Augustus very smart. Adopt Tiberius (with pressure from Livia, Tiberius’ mother). But forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus. Such schemes clearly show Augustus always harboured desire to bring back rule to his own descendents. Germanicus represents best of both families with Julian and Claudian blood equally in his veins. Germanicus mother was the younger Antonia, daughter of Octavia (Augustus’ own niece). upon Augustus’ death in AD 13, Tiberius convened senate to pay last rites and honor to Augustus. Widow Livia pronounced Augusta. Senate gave Tiberius other powers, imperium prolonged for life. Succession very smooth. Testment of solid foundation of Augustus’ establishment. Tiberius, mature 55 year old. Experienced in government affairs. Spent most of life in public service, understand burden of responsibility. Sense of duty. Excelled as Augustus’ subordinate, upholding law. Called upon to guide state policy, displayed hesitation and lack of precision. Unsuccessful relation with Julia made him suspicious. Austere, reserved, cold, lacking the charms of Augustus. Tacitus says of Tiberius: Besides, brought up from early in imperial households. During years of retirement, sole occupied by resentment, deception, and secret sensuality. He had a dower personality, senators plotted against him, family and friend feuding with him, conscious of his image, seemed hypocritical. Caused senators’ suspicions. Increased senate’s powers. Transferred from the assembly to the senate, the right to elect highest magistrates, the consul and praetors. Made senate a supreme court of treason and extortion. Consulted the senate on all matters of state. Included the senate as partners in government by projecting the diarchy of government. Until his retirement he governed tactfully and wisely. His rule can be divided between direct rule, and long distance rule. Tacitus does n’t like Tiberius, does not write good of even Tiberius’ early reign. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AD → Murder of Agrippa Postumus by Tiberius. Postumus was already exiled by Augustus. Tacitus portrays Tiberius as murderer. Tacitus admits Potumus as savage who lacked maturity and experience. In reality, unknown who ordered the execution of Postumus. Whether Augustus, Livia, or Drusus. Reports the murder to Postumus as a crime of the new princep. “Primum Facinus Novi Principatus” (the first crime of the new principate). (Tacitus annals). Too dangerous to allow this dynastic rival (as postumus is a direc
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