73 to 71 BC Spartacus
-> Thracian gladiator
Crassus (115 - 52 BC)
-> defeats Spartacus but Pompey takes credits
-> praetor 73 BC
-> consul 70BC with Pompey
“Princeps” = “leading man”
Pompey and Crassus demanded right to consulship 70BC
-> Crassus age enough (45)
-> held praetorship,
-> minimum 2 years lapsed enough between magistry
-> Pompey age 36 not old enough
-> have not held praetorship or quaestorship
->however senate yielded and breached Sullan constitution, and made consul with Crassus.
Pompey and Crassus cooperated and disbanded armies
->overthrow of Sullan constitutions
->irony (both of them originally Sullan supporters)
Sullan Constitution overthrown:
in 75BC consul C Cotta -> Aurelian Law -> triunes can again hold higher magistracies
* 70 BC -> all powers of tribunes restored including tribunician veto
* ability to introduce legislation (now pass laws for him)
-> censors elected
-> tribune L. Cotta -> Aurelian Laws
jury-courts: 1/3 senators
⅓ tribunes of treasury (tribuni aerarii)
**this makes ⅔ non-senatorial
Tribuni Aerarii: 300000 to 600000 sesterces
Senatorial jury guilty of furnishing their own government.
Example: Trial of Gaius Verres 70BC (governor of Sicily from 73 to 71 BC)
plundered his province, and his province charged him, with prosecutor/lawyer Marcus Tullius
Cicero. (106 - 43 BC). Like marius, he was novus homo from Arpinum. Breaking into senateship from military means.
Served as questor of Sicily before Verres.
Verres’ defence is Quintus Hortensius Hortalus (an optimate).
Cicero successful in prosecution winning the case for the province against Verres, and beating
Hortalus as the leading lawyer.
Verres fled to Marseille in south of France.
Marcus Anthony (Mark anthony’s grandfather) unable to subdue pirates. Sent Metallus, Metallus
subjugated Crete in 69 BC, made it another roman province.
Pirates raid coast of Italy, and disturbed grain transport. Rome decide to send another
67BC -> Lex Gabinia (proposed by tribune Aulus Gabinius), appoint a commander with
extraordinary command with unlimited power over three years. Equip armies, acquire fleets, and
nominate legates. Senate oppose this legislation. (too much power in one man). Law was
passed with support of Cicero and another man (Julius Caesar, 100 - 44 BC).
Senate has no choice but to appoint Pompey. Pompey rewards Gabinius with legate rank. Now
Pompey vs. pirates.
Swift: 40 days defeat pirates from italy, and 49 more days succeeded in defeating cilicia.
Treated pirates humanely, made them colonists in Asia minor and made them Roman citizens.
Pirates became Pompey’s loyal supporters and formed his client base in the east when with war
with Caesar. Concluded pirate problems in 3 months (originally granted command for 3 years).
Pompey wants to take over Lucullus against Mithridatis.
66 BC -> tribune Gaius Manilius → Lex Manilia
Transfer Bithynia province to Pompey, grants Pompey supreme commander in East, and letting
him war with Mithridates and Armenia.
Senate oppose this law, but this law still passed. Pompey relieves Lucullus of his easter
War with Mithridates from 66 to 62 BC.
1) invade Armenia
2) Tigranes lost, but now a Roman ally. Guard the east against ambitions of Parthian empire.
3) Drove Mithridatis from Pontus to lesser Armenia and to north in Greece (Crimea).
4) Pontus now joined to roman province of Bithynia (now called Bithynia-Pontus).
5) Mithridatis subjects revolt against him. His son Pharnaces led a mutiny of soldiers.
6) Mithridatis trapped in citadel, commits suicide in 63BC.
7) After a decade, Third Mithridatic War ends. Pompey turns attention to south (Syria).
64 BC syria became Roman Province.
Pompey annexed Judea to roman province of Syria. Left his chosen priest as head of
government of Judea.
Buffer states against Parthian Empire is Armenia.
Pompey became patron of states in the East. (East support him at war with Caesar).
Pompey returns to Italy triumphantly.
While Pompey absent from Rome in the East. Crassus is left as the champion populares in the
Rome. Crassus powers lay in his enormous wealth. However no match against Pompey’s
Crassus thought to build up his powers, and now allies with Gaius Julius Caesar, as
counterbalance to Pompey’s influence.
Originally born as patrician in 100BC.
However he supports populares.
69/68 BC -> questor in Further Spain
65 BC -> aedile (won popularity by putting on gladiatorial shows financed by Crassus, and other
festivals, statues of uncle Marius, and Marius’s champaign tributes, prosecutions).
63 BC pontifer maximus
62 BC praetor
61 BC governor of Further Spain
59 BC consul
Pompey’s ally in Rome is Cicero, they support the optimates, they support the senate. Cicero
foiled passage of land bill introduced by tribune P. Servillius Rullus (tribune 63 BC). 10 men