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CLST 201 (169)


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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 201
Margaret Erskine

Jan.14/13 CONSUL**- top of political pyramid PRAETOR** AEDILE** QUAESTOR** Military tribune (10 years spent in roman army)-foundation for future political career ‘CURSUS HONOTUM’- the course of honors/offices ( from quaestor to consul) of roman political Formed aristocracy (not democracy)- Oligarchy (Rule of a few) Purpose= gain admin, financial, judicial, and diplomatic experience Minimal age of 25 – could become quaestor Minimal age of 39 Minimal age of 42- to be enter praetor 2 years between holding each position Banned from holding more than 1 curule position at a time Can’t repeat the same position more than once in 10 year period Colegiality- have a partner in office SENATE-provided continuity, made up of previous magistrates - needed at least wealth of 1 million-property requirement - could be born into senate -all nobles wanted to be in senate -finally opened up admission to lowest magistrates (quaestor) -300 ex-membership at first but then emperor doubled it to 600 - membership for life= very conservative - permanent advisory for consul -in theory- had no legaslative power, couldn’t even convene itself - gave opinions in order (consuls first) -CURIA- latin for senate house- where senate met SENES-‘old men’ in latin-council of elders to advise King SENATUS CONSULTUM (S.C)- decree of the senate- advice that magistrates could accept or not (but pretty much had to) COMITIA CENTURIATA-CENTURIATE ASSEMBLY, in 193 centuries, all adult male, elect senior magistrates COMITIA TRIBUTA- tribal assembly, all adult males belong, elect junior CONCILIUM COMITIA CURIATA-CURIATE ASSEMBLY 3 TRIBES=RAMANES, TITIES, LUCERES COMITIUM- where they assembled to vote - votes of wealthy counted more, plus only wealthy in political position NOVI HOMINES (singular NOVUS HOMO) SENATUS POPULUSQUE ROMANUS (S.P.Q.R)- THE SENATE AND THE ROMAN PEOPLE ROMAN SOCIETY POPULUS ROMANUS=ROMAN PEOPLE QUITIES=ROMANI (ROMANS)-name from roma (city) 1)FAMILIA-fundamental unit PATERFAMILIA=father of the family PATRIA POTESTAS= father’s power GENSCLAN (PL. GENTES- people in similar descent, formed social group 2)CLIENTELA=Client-hood, if you didn’t have a father… you become a client PATRONUS AND CLIENS (patron and client)- mutual relationship, patron legal protection to the patron, client political support to patron SENATOR=PATRES CONSCRIPTI- conscript fathers , thus were patricians PATRICIIPATRICIANS-elite, name given to all family and descents -main class difference between patricians and plebians (mass of normal people)- mainly difference in blood not wealth, Patricians inherited right to be elite- don’t intermarry with plebians PRAENOMEN, NOMEN**, COGNOMEN, AGNOMEN V NAME (men)= (praenomen-christian name (limited variety), nomen-MOST important- designated the family clan/gens one belonged-distinguised plebians from patricians,cognomen-indicated specific branch of a family- honory epithet/description of distinguishing physical charactersitic, afnomen- sometime added) MARCUS AEMILIUS LEPIDUS PORCINA NAME (women)= given the feminine form of father’s second name (nomen) NAME- after marriage= possessive form of husbands name first then orginal name Ex) CLODIA METELLI= METELLUS’ CLODIA- CLODIA, THE WIFE OF METELLUS 2 names under empire= CLAUDIA OCTAVIA -in 509 bc the patricians completely in control- controlled the tribal ***494-287 BC- STRUGGLE OF THE ORDERS (PATRICIANS VS. PLEBIANS)-first great political conflict 494 BC=FIRST SECESSION OF THE PLEBS-LEFT CITY AND REFUSED MILITARY SUPPORT- ‘strike’ PLEBIAN GRIEVANCES= DESIRE FOR POLITICAL EQUALITY- to participate in all the political offices since they shared the military responsibility… PROVISION OF ARABLE LAND-land that can be plowed, ABOLITION OF ENSLAVEMENT FOR DEBT-posed major problem because there were high rates of interest-if you couldn’t pay it back- you become slave *CONCILIUM PLEBIS (COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE)-formed from the first secession of the plebs- no patricians alongelected spokespeople TRIBUNI PLEBIS (10) –had power of veto (‘I forbid)- could nullify magistrates legistation and block their office appointment, also elected 2 PLEBIAN AEDILES- -TRIBUNES OF THE PLEBS-no limitations on how many times you could repeat in office, had no imperium and only had power in rome city limits 2 PLEBIAN AEDILES PLEBISCITA (PLEVISCITES)- ‘sense of the people’ -the plebians finally won power equal to that of the consuls- could present bills to senate, their motions were binding on everyone and not just plebians- led to abolition of senate (no more use for it) 450 BCTWELVE TABLES (LAW CODE)- everyone free under the law 445 BC LEX CANULEIA- intermarriage sanctioned between patricians and plebians 367 BC**LICINIAN SEXTIAN LAWS- plebians can hold the consulship NOVI HOMNES (new men- plebians) 366 BC*first plebian consul- made their family nobles 356 BCfirst plebian dictator 351 BCfirst plebian censor 342 B*CLEX GENUCIA- made it compulsory that out of the 2 consuls 1 must be 1 plebian 337 BC first plebian praetor 326 BC LEX POETELIA- enslavement for debt abolished 300 BC LEX VALERIAPROVOCATIO (APPEAL) now available 300 BC LEX OGULNIArelgiious priesthoods opened up to plebians 287 BC** LEX HORTENSIA- laws passed by council of the plebs are binding on ALL citizens- end of struggle of plebs LEGISLATIVE BODY- TRIBAL ASSEMBLY OLD (COMITIA TRIBUTA) -CONVENED BY MAGISTRATE (CONSUL/PRAETER) -ALL CITIZENS -ELECTS QUEASTORS AND CURULE AEDILES NEW (CONCIUM PLEBIS) -CONVENED BY TRIBUNE -PLEBIANS ONLY -ELECT TRIBUNES AND PLEBIAN AEDILES ELECTIVE BODY- CENTURIATE ASSEMBLY (COMITIA CENTURIATA) -convened by magistrate -all citizens belonged -elects consuls, praetors and censors CONSERVATIVE element -magristrates -senate DEMOCRACTIC element -tribunes -Concilium plebis PASSING LEGISATION: Consuls/praetors and tribunes of plebstribal assembly 3 CLASSES of roman citizens: ORDO SENATORIUS (need 1 million property) ORDO EQUESTER-new class of businessmen (need 400,000 property)- civil and military careers PLEBIANS- serve in junior ranks of army th 4 class- ORDO LIBERTINORUM- freedmen see page. 24,47 in textbook MAGNA GRACECIA’Great greece’- many greek states in the south of italy LATIUM- area where rome is- people all celebrated religous festivals and spoke latin IUS LATIIright belonging to latium- CONOBiUM marriage with anyone in any latin city COMMERCIUM can own land, right of trade MIGRATIO can take up citizenship in any order latin city **LATIN LEAGUE- war alliance against etrusian neighbours in the north *496 BC: BATTLE OF LAKE REGILLUS- rome was fighting against and won against latin league *493 BC: FOEDUS CASSIANUM- treaty where Rome admitted to Latin league CLAUSUS Latin CLAUDIUS- new clan from the Sabine people Tribes surrounding rome: SABINES-north, AEQUI (CINCINNATUS 458 BC)- northeast, VOLSCI (CORIOLANUS-exiled from rome and tried to try betray rome)- south - to deal with the aequi and the volsci the romans made treaty with the hernici people to divide the two and prevent them from uniting (CINCINNATUS) *ETRUSCAN city= VEII396 BC- first annexation of city- doubled rome’s territory- signified Rome is now expansionist power CAMILLUS- military hero of Rome CISALPINE GAUL- celtic invasion from the north= new enemy, the gauls on this same (cis) of the Alps- go through appenines to invade rome SENONES- *390 BC BATTLE AT THE ALLIA, GAULS SACK ROME- roman people retreat= bad day DEFENSIVE IMPERIALISM- rome built wall around itself/7 hills because of the defeat by gauls- new policy towards its neighbours (defending its neighbours while taking over) *340-338 BC REVOLT of LATIN LEAGUE- against Rome- failed bid for independence- dissolved latin league- the people lost the rights that they had before 1) ROMAN CITIZENSpl. MUNICIPIA/MUNICIPIUM (EX. TUSCULUM)- municipality MUNICIPIUM either got CIVITAS OPTIMO IURE (Rome citizenship and vote) or got CIVITAS SINE SUFFRAGIO (Rome citizenship, NO vote) ROMAN COLONIES- established as military garrisons along enemy borders for defensive purposes, populated by people with full roman citizenship- first one was Tusculum 2) socii ALLIES LATIN ALLIES (socii latinii)-independent but surrender control of foreign affairs and provide troops for war, ITALIAN ALLIES (socii italici)- but surrender control of foreign affairs and provide troops for war - policy of consolidation through incorporation, Rome allowed allies, colonies to do whatever they just wanted to have leadership in war/foreign affiars *SAMNITES- powerful tribe to the southeast st 343-341 BC 1 SAMNITE WAR-town of CAPUA needs help
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