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CLST 201 (186)
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March 12.docx

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 201
Professor
Richard Greenfield
Semester
Winter

Description
March 12 March-12-14 4:02 PM • Augustus's reign cont'd o Various new courts, some controlled by senate, other by emperor o Justice much better; more comprehensive, both civil and criminal cases o Juries smaller o Augustus himself involved o Standardized laws, all provinces starting to come under same laws o So in general, this power sharing made senate happy! Augustus tactful ­ had  advisory council including 15 senators (chosen by lot every 5 months) o Equites happy too! Became bureaucrats, financial agents, took care of grain  supply, fleet, etc. So more loyal to state o First fire department: vigiles urbanae o First police force: cohortes urbanae o Organized like army, but were not military o Divided up into cohorts and each one was in charge of a certain part of the city o City mob: bread and circuses ­ assemblies functioned as before but more of a  rubber stamp than real power o Augustus's freedmen: secretaries, librarians, firemen, etc (civil service) o Everything systematized and centralized o Wanted to reform society • Revived old ideals (peace, morality, piety, etc) • Thought Romans were immoral and decadent • Used propaganda; hired writers to write about these things  Horace: new prosperity, old cults  Virgil: Aeneid and Georgics • Georgics: about being back on the farm • Aeneid about founding of Rome; propaganda linking  Augustus to the Gods (right to rule)  In 17BC, golden age proclaimed  Poets are super important • Decadence:  Bachelors, childless couples penalized  Made people get married  Adultery was a crime, but not pushed on Augustus himself  Banished his daughter and granddaughter for immoral behaviour  Consuls who passed law against bachelors were bachelors  themselves. Even Virgil and Ovid!  Ovid banished for his poem the art of loving, considered  immoral • Building program  Bricks to marble  Trajan's Column  Basilica Ulpia  Trajan's Forum  Augustus's Forum • Expenditures  Public works and services: maintaining roads, water supply,  sewers, police, etc.  Slaves: augustus biggest employer of slaves  Grain dole: free grain to 200,000 people  Army: defence huge concern, pensions…  Religion and games • Finances: needed complete overhaul  Old Republican Treasury: aerarium Saturni: in Temple of Saturn  0 Senate in charge (as before), money from provinces (taxes); 2 praetors  oversaw it  New Treasury: Fiscus: princeps' own money ­ imperial provinces  ­ to pay legions  Aerarium Militare: to pay army. Grant from Augustus, special  taxes (inheritance tax, sales tax, import duties)  Patrimonium caesaris: Caesar's private fortune, Cleopatra's  treasures, properties taken from Antony, legacies  Aerarium Sanctius: Special reserve for emergencies ­ money  from tax on manumission of slaves • Revenues  Provincial Tax • Provincial taxes much better, controlled localy, no more  tax farming, abuses out  Ager publicus • Rent was supposed to be collected, forgot about it, then  remembered, revenue, chaching  Import duties • One placed on things entering Italy • Another placed on goods going between provinces • Manumission • Sales tax, inheritance
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