Class Notes (835,044)
Canada (508,887)
CLST 201 (170)
Prof. (31)
Lecture

Week12_Lecture1.docx

5 Pages
64 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 201
Professor
Prof.
Semester
Winter

Description
Anarchy and Recovery • In general 3 century was very difficult, confusing period: very few reliable sources • Two main phases: from Commodus (180) to end of the Severi (235), and then 235 to Diocletian (285) • Rome still centre of Empire but power shifting to provincial borders: almost all emperors from the provinces • Means more regionalism, disunity – everyone out for themselves • Period right after Commodus’ death similar to after Nero’s death = Chaos o P. Helvius Pertinax (senator from Africa) took over with Praetorian’s help, but was murdered after 3 months (didn’t pay them promised bonus) o Praetorians offered throne to highest bidder – rich senator M. Didius Julianus won o But Syrian governor (P. Niger) proclaimed; Army in Britain proclaimed C. Albinus; Danubian army proclaimed Septimius Severus  CIVIL WAR o After months of civil war, Septimius Severus seized the throne  Julianus murderd, Niger and Albanius killed fighting Severus • New dynasty: The Severi (193-235) • S. Severus (193-211) o From Leptis Magna, Africa o Well educated, rose to become governor o Called “Punic Sulla” – due to reforms he put in similar to Sulla o Disbanded Praetorian Guard, but brings in 15,000 of his own troops to serve o Relations with senate – no respect o New era: military dictatorship – army basis of his authority  Cassius Dio: Severus’ dying words “Enrich the army and despise the rest” o Many reforms – changed character of Principate (now known as Dominate)  Senate much less important, role gradually reduced  Emperor relying mainly on his Imperial council  New treasury (res private principis) – from property seized from enemies – so much that he could give army a pay raise  More provincials in official posts, especially Easterners  Praetorian Prefect, commander of army in Italy, heads emperor’s council – so takes charge when emperor is away  Imperial Council like a supreme court, headed by Praetorian Prefect o Citizens now in 2 classes: Honestiores (senators, equestrians, magistrates, soldiers), and Humiliores (lower class) o Emperor only real source of laws – senate can only agree o Finances good – emperor has firm control, new treasury, smart handling money o Great building program, especially in Africa o Improved army: better pay, allowed marriages between army and native women, more legions formed for the border wars o Main point: senatorial career now not important, army is the way to the top – leads to later ‘soldier emperors’ o Severus died on campaign in Britain, had two sons to succeed • Caracalla (211-217) and brother Septimus Geta (211-212) o Took power together o They hated each other – so much so that Caracalla had Geta killed o Caracalla tried to erase his memory, portraits erased and statues of him beheaded o Caracalla’s reign: military dictatorship, all opposition was murdered o War of aggression in East, very costly  Had to increase taxes, coinage debased (reduced value) to fund war  Inflation caused, almost a complete economic collapse o In 212, Roman citizenship granted to all! Empire all equal and all could now pay inheritance taxes o Busy fighting border wars from 213 until death in 217 (murdered) o Plot against Caracalla was led by Praetorian Prefect • M. Opellius Macrinus (PP) now emperor (217-218) o Equestrian, first emperor not to have been a senator first o Eventually murdered when proper heir to the throne appeared o This emperor: Caracalla’s aunt’s grandson: Elagabalus o Maesa claimed he was the son of Caracalla, he w
More Less

Related notes for CLST 201

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit