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Clst 340 lecture 3

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 340

Clst 340 Lecture 3  Kings of Rome after Romulus o Numa Pompilius o Tullus Hostilius o Ancus Marcius o Lucius Tarquinius Priscus o Servius Tullis o L. Tarquinius Superbus  Primary Source Unmentioned o M. Terentius Varro  Sabine area  Chief librarian of Rome  Text called De Lingua Latina  On the Latin language  The most erodite (educated) of the Romans (Cicero)  Numa Pompilius o Elected by the people o Priest king  Romulus was a warrior king o Reigned for 42 years  No war  Romulus reigned for 38 rd o 3 gate is the Janus Gate  Gate should always be open except when there is no war anywhere. o Established chief gods and where they would be worshipped o Animistic religion  Religion of spirits  Romans did not know what Gods looked like  Jupiter  Zeus  Pater – father  Zeu pater – sky god o Spirit more than anything  Vesta  Spirit of the fire place o Fire place vital to survival  Janus  God of the front door o Protects house from burglars o Father gives daughter to husband  If she trips on door Janus disapproves  Lifted and carried inside  Penates  Spirits of the cupboard  Lares  Spirit of the whole household o And perhaps garden o Spirit of ancestors o Vesta  National fireplace  Tended by women known as the Vestal Virgins o 6 women chosen before puberty o 30 year service o Most respected of women  Could own property o Pontifex (pontifices)  Originally one  Looked after the calendar  Before Numa there were only 10 months o Numa brings January and February o 1 day of year is 1 of march  Explains why days are added to February rather than December  In charge of public records o Created the Flamen (flamines)  Priests devoted to one god each  15 in total but 3 were big ones o Dialis – Priest of Jupiter o Martialis – Priest of Mars  Originally god of Agriculture  Defense god initially o Quirinalis – Priest of unknown god  Related to Cures – Sabellan city  Quires – deified Romulus – Patron god of Cures o These 3 were first 3 flamen  Tullus Hostilius o Native Roman o Warrior king  Goes to war with Sabines  Goes to war with other Latins  War against Alba Longa o Mother city (Metropolis) o War to be decided by fight between two families  Horatii  3 brothers  Roman  Curiatii  3 other brothers  Fighting for Alba Longa  They lose to the Horatii  One of the brothers was in love with a female Horatii o She was killed by a Horatii brother after mourning his death.  Romans initially found this horrendous.  Sentenced to death but the people exonerated him  Tulius captures and destroys Alba Longa  Territory and people absorbed as Roman citizens  Curiatii came to Rome o As did the (Iulii) Julius  Claimed to be descendants of Aeneas  Big at start and end of republic o Absorbed into Patriciate  Ancus Marcius o Alleged grandson of Numa Pompilius o Ancus is a strange name o 24 year reign o Armies advance towards the sea
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