o For essay portion bringing in Plutarch information will aid you in getting 50/50
o Unlawful annexation of Sardinia and Corsica
Increased tension between Carthage and Rome
Hanno the Great
Dominated Carthage and recalled Hamilcar outside of Rome
By the time Sardinia and Corsica are annexed Hamilcar is in charge of
o Carthage had several posts in Spain
o Spain might be Punic word meaning “Land of the Rabbits”
o Knew of posts in Spain and concentrated efforts there.
Forces brought to attention of Massilia, a Greek City.
Had overtaken Carthage in Spain during last punic war.
Bases were in the North
o Called Emporias
o Told Rome about Carthage in Spain.
Massilia had helped Rome pay ransoms during the Gaul
sack of 390
Meanwhile, Hamilcar is marching North, adding
to forces diplomatically and militarily
o Had three sons: Hannibal (eldest), Mago, and Hasdrubal
o Died in 229
Hasdrubal (different than the one just mentioned)
o Hamilcar’s son in law.
o Took over in 229.
o Continued movements in Spain.
Moved Carthaginian capital in Spain from Gades to Carthago Nova.
Because Spain was so rich, Carthage quickly became very wealthy.
226 – Rome signs treaty with Carthage.
o Treaty of the Iberus River (today Ebro River)
Everything in the south and west is Carthaginian Except previously established Massilian posts and towns in those areas.
Meanwhile in Italy
o 287 – Lex Hortensius
Concilium Plebis now primary law makers of Roman people.
Rome still dominated by Patricians
o Elected tribune in 232
Senones – those who sacked Rome
Settled in Cisalpine Gaul and recently
conquered by Rome.
Near Ariminium (Rimini)
Land was supposed to be divided amongst
o Vetoed by Flaminius in 232.
Veto was rarely used at this
Wanted to divide land among
o Elected censor in 230
o Rome builds a colony at Cisalpine Gaul.
The Insubres, Cenomani, and Boii tribes thought the colony was too close.
Insubres had earlier taken Mediolanum
War begins in 225
M. Claudius Marcellus is consul.
o Not part of Patrician Claudius family
o Took on chieftain of the Gauls (222)
Won and took his armor
Spolia Opima (richest spoils)
o Dedicated them to Jupiter Feretrius
(Aspect of Jupiter)
By 220 Rome won and annexed Cisalpine Gaul
218 – 2 colonies setup
o What Spain was called at the time.
o Hasdrubal killed in 221
Hannibal put in charge
Strong relationship with soldiers: slept, ate, worked with them