CLST 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Laurel Wreath, Pomerium, Imperium

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language similar to Latin and Italian- Neo-Latin languages: French, Spanish
end 4th century AD, a need to split the empire, 476 AD, Fall of the Roman Western
Empire
West: no longer most important empire, lost its power
very difficult period, b/c many people, Barbarians, made invasions, some reached Rome
Augustus Romulus - last empire, full circle or whatever
Government of Rome
very different than that of Athen's government, Greek were surprised by Roman
Government as to how it worked, 3 different kinds of government aspects while drawing
up constitution
Polybius, deported to Rome, was a general and respectable, was tutor for sons of
aristocrat, extremely interested in Rome and Roman history
imperium, from imperare- to order, res: activity of the Roman people
Auspicium: act of consulting the gods/divination, gods weren't happy with election of
magistrates
what was considered a message
in ancient Greece, some phenomena like ex. thunderbolt during a public event, would be
considered that Jupiter (Zeus) was against what was happening. There were episodes
when they tried to stop the election something phenomena showing that Caesar wouldn't
be elected, but in that case, he wasn't heard and caesar was elected
in order to understand how this link between offices and religion was so strong, we can
understand looking at a special award, which was given to successful generals in wars,
general had to be victorious, not just in a small battle, especially we know from the first
century BC, he had to kill at least 5000 enemies to have prisoners, spoils from the war
Triumphus - triumph, prize awared to a successful Roman general
originally Greek word, adopted by Etruscans then by Romans
Jupiter, king and father of the gods, corresponds to Zeus of Greek mythology
the main place of cult Temple of Jupiter on Capitoline Hill
what we know about the temple, now under palace of Renaissance period
still under the power of Tarquinius/monarchy, he was an Etruscan, the artist, sculptor
was an Etruscan, Etruscans are important or whatever
general had also some important clothes to wear paludamentum, colour was normally
red, different shades
Pomerium: sacred boundary, Imperium militiae: power on military service,
Imperium domi: power at home, Imperator: general, Emperor later adopted
general with his troops had to stay out of sacred boundary pomerium, safer to have army
outside Rome, general kept inside
Temple of Bellona: out of the pomerium: was a goddess of war
The commander meets the Senate and asks for triumph. If Senate considered was good,
not the best, got Ouatio
Ouatio: ovation/lesser triumph
person was allowed to enter city with troops, chariot with 4 horses, specific dress, and to
have trumpeteers with him and all person following him something about stuff they took
from land conquered, general wore a laurel crown
number of lectors (?) he had with him
tunica palimata: embroidered with palm-leaves and toga picta, had his face painted in
red, wore laurel crown
blah blah blah triumph
Estrucan: paint men in brown/red colour, females with white, seen in Greece
idea to be assimilated to Jupiter, skin painted red, clay statue, general having triumph
assimilated to god Jupiter
still there are doubts of origin of award, why and when exactly it was started but we can
say quite surely that during the monarchy there was already the procession of triumph
Calpurnius Bibulus:
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