CLST 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Novus Homo, Roman Citizenship, Imperium

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Nobilis: noble novus homo: new man
There were very important families that generally gave magistrates to the city of Rome, has
nothing to do with the fact of being Patrician or plebians, as plebian were allowed to be
consuls
The problem became bigger after the conquest of Italy and the social war, more people
who had Roman citizenship who would like to become magistrates in Rome
Start to have novi homines, they are new persons who tried to hold important offices in
Rome, especially the consulship, which was held generally by members of noble families
Cicero was a novi homines, was born outside of Rome, another city in Italy
To keep in the same families, gens, the offices, was related to the Cult of Ancestors
Romans had, statue of a man, magistrate, toga, holding 2 busts, masks of ancestors,
generally held in wooden shrines in the house, man proudly showing his ancestors, we
know that Romans also used to have images of their ancestors and masks of their
ancestors on their face during procession of funeral, meant to keep link between past and
present
Important to show all lineage of their ancestors, very proud to have many members of
their family holding important offices, grown up with the idea to become a consul in their
adulthood, tried to prevent other people, "new men" from holding these important
positions
2nd and 1st century BCE Magistrates
cursus honorum: race for honours, very important for their careers, show what they did
in the past
Problem: little by little, more people who had the right to run for offices, nobles and new
men, was an accessory to give a kind of order
After 197 BCE consulship after holding praetorship, to avoid some figures to gain so much
power in such a short period of time, problem became bigger for other issues
180 BCE Lex Villia Annalis two year gap between consulship and praetorship
Sulla's legislation (81-80 BCE) quaestorship before praetorship
Problem became bigger in the late Republic
Sulla > Pompei > Caesar; lots of ambitious people brought to the empire, power in the
hand of one man
Families that were used to holding important roles and having magistrates, also wished to
be respected, for example, in this letter, complaining about lack of respect to member of
his family
Scipio Aemilianus: didn't wish to be a magistrate despite his family background
Important new men: Cato the Elder, first to reach consulship in his family, had the
honour to hold the sensorship?, Marcus Tullius Cicero: was a politician, philosopher,
author, bit of a big deal, he was able even being actually from Arpinum gained consulship
in 63 BCE Gaius Marius from Arpinum: held 7 consulships, became famous for his
military skills, an excellent general Cato the Younger:
Pro-magistrates: in place of magistrate
Quintus Publius Philo: 326 BCE appointed pro consule (in place of the consul) in order
to allow him to finish the siege of Naples, his office was about to expire so he was allowed
197 BCE 2 new praetorships for Spanish provinces, pro-magistrates rarely used
53 BCE: the Senate proposed a decree ordering 5 years separation between the holding of a
magistracy and the tenure of a prouincia
Legati pro-praetore: subordinate officers acting in the place of praetors
Principes: first citizens
Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus excluded from consulship
During the war against Mark Anthony held a huge prouincia for 10 years
31-27 BCE consul continuously, 23 BCE, gave up the consulship and received the
imperium pro console
Libertas: freedom