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Lecture 16

CLST 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Tyrant, Roman Kingdom, Uch


Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 103
Professor
M Barbara Reeves
Lecture
16

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CLST 103 W7L2
Wednesday, February 25th 2015
Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106-43 BC
Readings: Here against Antony – 134. “In these 20 years, no one
had been public enemy without at same time declaring war on
me too” – All about him, personal.
How his involvement in Catiline’s Conspiracy as saviour of
Roman State – defender of Republic ideals but does come foul of
other politicians because he is willing to go to extreme lengths to
enforce view: Senatus consultum ultimum to punish senators
who involved.
Go into exile in 58 to not go on trial, he comes back to Rome as
things calm down, involvement in politics but not at the high
level again. Going to devote himself to public good –governor of
a province – make a lot of defenses for powerful people, try to
uphold ideals, but most important way he does this for later
history is through publishing
oBecause he is not having to be involved in governing of
state very much, lots of time to publish his ideas. Makes
and publish speakers, makes sure everyone know what he
says but because he has such strong ideas and goes
against other strong people at this time and In 43 when 2nd
Triumvirate is formed, Marc Antony puts him at top of
proscription list and get him hunted down – enemy of the
state because enemy of Marc Antony: head and hands put
on public display for people to not speak out against
Antony.
Readings: insults he slips - “uneducated low-
brow”, etc. and then also a long focus on a
particular inscident involving Marc Antony and
Julius Caesar – Marcus Antonius (on golden
coin): he is a deputy of Julius Caesar (close
ally) and politican
oPg 138: got to do with public ceremony,
Caesar is o;ciating over ceremony,
Antony is one of the priests taking part in
it. What Cicero says – extreme attacks on
a powerful person about in the ceremony
and Marc Antony (1/2 consuls) is trying to
put a crown on Caesar (other consul) and
make him a king. – Making him seem as
a villain.
Best understanding of the politics and atmosphere of this time.
C. Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) 86 – ca. 34 BC
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Histories of recent events
Period in 1st century when very volatile, civil wars, unrest among
various groups striving for power.
Sallust starts being in the middle of all these things, pursuing a
typical career for a young elite individual, does not go well for
him, he gets kicked out of the senate on charges of improper
morals, (censor has power to get people kicked out), but these
improper morals had a lot to do with politics because the year he
gets kicked out he had been a Tribune of the Plebs and run afoul
of other senatorial colleagues. Later he gets charged with
malpractice while serving as a provincial governor, at this point,
he escapes prosecution due to Julius Caesar intervening on his
behalf. Realize from beginning: Julius Caesar is his patron, who
he is siding with in politics – important because he is writing
history (Livy – history of Rome going to earliest days to present),
Sallust in contrast focuses on a narrower time frame, writing
about recent historical events.
Tribune: >ghting for peoples rights – Populares
Client of Julius Caesar: support patron in writing
Forced to withdraw from political life: because of series of
misfortunes
Histories re?ect personal biases
oLike Cicero he has time to write and publish because he
has run fowl with politics and can’t continue on path he
wishes and thus he is retired.
oPassage for today: makes an argument that it is just as
worthy to write history as to make it. Of course, spoken by
someone who has been refused the right to make history.
oAxe to grind in writings: pro-people, anti-senate, also very
supportive of everything Julius Caesar is doing. Sense of
view of what is going on (aristocrats are generally corrupt)
and contrasts himself with Cicero (who thinks everyone
should be pursuing public good) and instead given up on
people of own generation and doesn’t think they are
capable of doing this. Pg. 97: personal power is what
everyone is after, doesn’t matter what they say they are
doing (for public good) but for power, contrast to Cicero
who says what a politician should be.
oHistory is accounted by recounting speeches of important
roman: important role of rhetoric (ancient arguing) in
Roman politics: remember Marius in forum which allowed
him to become consul and raise urban army from poor.
oTalks abut Catiline (able to attract following with successor
of orator) and he lost when plan was revealed about his
plan to burn down city: Pg. 97 - see the importance of
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