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CLST 129 Lecture Notes - Heinrich Schliemann, Hisarlik, Roman Art

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 129

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Term One
5:05 PM
Day 7: Pompeii, History of the excavations
1716, prince elbouef transferred and digging stopped after about 6 years (Vesuvius active again)
1738 Charles III of Spain (now ruling south italy) ordered digging resumed, using old tunnels
o Found inscription naming Herculaneum
An in charge: Rocco Giacchino de Alcubierre: 1748-1780 (military engineer)
o Aim: to supply king with great art; work done in secret
o Secret: b/c king saw this as his private property and didn’t want other ppl involved insight
to take treasures he felt was his
o He wouldn’t let anyone come to site unless he already knew them as worker, to go to site
had to have special permit to go and no notes could be taken while at site
o As word got out more and more ppl wanted to see site
1748 dig began at site of Pompeii to supply Spanish court w/ beautiful art
o Soon stoped b/c no art was found and went to Herculaneum instead
o They didn’t care about the site only wanted treasure
Carl Weber in charge overall y 1750
o Better methods
o Coordinated digs instead of random holes
o Area should be dug systematically
o Things should be left in situ (where they were found)
o Important step forward in thinking
o Systematically= dig along streets, enter houses bu front door; not a hole in a wall
o Made proper plans and sketches: keeps everything in context; don’t know how the plans
were made/when
1754: wok shifted to Pompeii: easier to dig ten Herculaneum
o Work is chaotic, paintings ripped from walls, art 'not good' enough destroyed
1763: inscription naming Pompeii, legends true after all
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) didn’t like what he saw at Pompeii and Herculaneum
o Art historian
o Really understood art
o Very critical of excavation: wrote letters to newspapers in Europe about the destruction of
the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabia
o His complaints:
were taking things w/out recording them
Work too slow, not enough men
o Ended up getting murdered
1785: start to make plans about what they are doing
1780: Herculaneum, lots of trouble b/c of the type of eruption. Convicts were used to excavate
the site.
o Gunpowder used to make progress faster, possible loss of other things
Herculaneum finds brought to museum in Naples by king and queen.
William Gell (1777-836)

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o Wrote a guide book to pompeii
o 2 editions
o Very influential: english speaking world got to know about pompeii
o Illustration very fanciful
o Good illustartion of how the buildings looked at the time
Giuseppe Fiorelli (1823-1896)
o Trained as a lawyer and numismatist(coin)
o Worked in Naples museum studying coins
o Transferred to Pompeii to be inspector of dig
o Accused director of bribery, corruption
o Director accused Fiorelli of political crimes
o Went to prison for 10 months
o Eventually appointed as inspector again in 1860,
o in charge by 1863
o Saw Pompeii as cultural heritage (not what was in the buildings but the buildings
o Italy now unified, Pompeii part of their past
o Site opened to visitors for fee (not just nobles) beginning of pompeii as a tourist site
o Directed dig form 1863-1875
o Believed site was like a museum so you couldn’t just destroy things
o Principles:
Keep proper records
Dig systematically
Keep proper spoil heaps( everything that isn't part of archaeological dig, ash, pumus
More effective
o Set up schools to train archaeologists: no more amateurs
o To locate buildings; town divided into regions like a modern town (each city block was an
insulae (island))
Lecture: Day 8 The last days of Pompeii
1894: House of Vettii; very popular
1910: Street of Abundance main shopping street
o Part of street cleared
o Popular among dignitaries and celebrities
Big concern at site is preserving what we already found
o Restoration done on art at the walls
People of pompeii
No warning of eruption-completely of guard
Ppl are trampled
Lots of people must of escaped town, more bodies could be found in area around town
Ppl left on boats right away and survived
Some stayed behind and hid in house, died
Ppl hit with falling debries
Bodies found at 3 diff levels: basment, street level, and at a second story level
Bodies found as they died: w/ expression, what position they died in ect
All levels of society found
Fiorelii develped plaster casting

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o Ash formed case around body
o Plaster of paris(used for casts) inorder to see the bodies as they were
Able to look at human nature
Hot gases could cause muslce contraction or cause the body to freeze: bodies would freeze in odd
Dog left in house chained
2000 bodies found and still being found
Other remains
Forum after time became cener of pompeii, political, cultural ect
Forum never roofed to big
Buildings suronding forum would have been roofed
Temple at top end of forum
Two temples within the foroum
Capitolium: temple dedicated to the capitiline trio; jupiter, juno, minerva
o Over looks entire forum
Forum Holitrium: for grain cearel, lentils, beans
Temple of Apollo: main temple before capitolium, has its own presinc
o Know its apollo because of statue
Basilica: law courts of pompeii, occasionlaly actions would be held
Curia: call them municiple offices, not sure what there for
Comitium: election hall, not sure what building for, not roofed
Eumachia Building: built by priestress, dedicated to her but not sure what building for
o Possible used for clothing dying
Temple of Vespasian: ruled 69-79 died before erruption, Titus's father
o Library before becoming temple
Temple off the Lares: Household deities, on larger scale protector of ppl
Macellum: fish and meat market
Town right on water
No bodies found originaly
1982: when opened up boat houses, hundreds and hundreds of bodies were find
We have skeletons b/c of the lava dosen't allow for plaster method to be used
Archaeologists have great difficulty removing the bodies; bones are brittle
Ppl died at herculanium by intense heat brain and organs explode
By studying bones able to learn about the health of the skeleton, how old they were, what
aliments they had/ sex of people
o Had good teeth
Plaster of paris can be used o anything organic (wood furniture, were trees were ect)
Lecture Day 9: Pompeii; the remains
Lining 3 sides of forum coloumineds: cover rows of columns 2 stories, provides shade
o After the eruption you would of only seen the tops of the columns
Basilica, long and rectangular
Columns in basilica match those in the forum; possibly for legal prossedings or auctions
Macellum: stalls, and shrines for selling goods and honoring gods, large building/table in center
unclear as to what purpose is for
Capitolium: sits on large platform, outside porch with columns and inside building were gods
would have lived, needs to dominate entire scene
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