CLST 201 Lecture Notes - Titus Annius Milo, Cisalpine Gaul, Gallia Narbonensis
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Caesar – consul in 59BC
M. Calpurnius BIBLIUS as colleague
60BC – First Triumvirate – Caesar, Pompey and Crassus (Pompey married Julia,
Caesar: wanted command of a province and army after his consulship
Pompey: ratification of his Eastern acta and land for his veterans
Crassus: reduction in contracts for (publicanii=equestrian) tax-collectors in Asia.
59 – Tribune Vatinius gave Caesar the stuff he wanted
Caesar: governor of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum with 3 legions for 5 years, March
Also got Tranalpine Gaul and one additional legion when that governor.
Starts in March – he has to be consul and proconsul at the same time?!
5 year set length basically gives him immunity for any wrongdoing – can only be
charged the year after consular or proconsular position.
Lex Julia de Repetundis: extortion law, designed to protect populance of provinces.
Acta Diurna – daily record of all acts of assembly, motions passed, etc.
Republic basically controlled by the Triumvirate alone – the beginning of the end
for the Republic.
Before Caesar departed from Rome for Gaul, Triumvirates wanted to remove their
two biggest opponents, Cicero and Cato.
P. Clodius Pulcher (92-52). Tribune in 58. Was a disreputable shit-disturber
(caught in drag in Caesar’s house – check out last notes). He ruled the city with
armed thugs when Caesar left.
Clodius was pissed Cicero had witnessed against him, ruined his alibi.
When he got made tribune, made the reduced grain into a free dole. Drove Cicero
from Rome by passing a law that anyone who killed a citizen without trial -
“deprived of fire and water” (remember, Cicero killed the 5 conspirators without
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Cicero voluntarily went into exile without awaiting trial. He was formally
banished, his property confiscated, and he took refuge in Theselonica in
Still need to get rid of Cato
Clodius carried a law assigning him to a special mission to govern the island of
Cyprus (which Rome now controlled, took from Egypt’s Ptolomy).
Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, 58-51. Fought the Helvetians (modern Switzerland),
Riots in Rome, all semblance of order gone, senate was very weak.
Clodius, with his free dole, had made himself king of the plebs. His armed gangs
controlled everything, roamed around burning houses and throwing stones at his
Caesar gone – now Pompey and Crassus don’t really like each other anymore.
Pompey had broken away from Clodius, supported a different tribune, MILO.
Titus Annius MILO. Formed an opposition gang to that headed by Clodius.
Pompey pressed for Cicero’s return from exile; Clodius pissed, veto’d; gang wars.
Pompey took refuge from political life, shut up in his own house. Returned to
political life in summer of 57, after Clodius had lost his power (Milo’s gang won,
he wasn’t reelected). Pompey sponsored a bill authorizing Cicero’s return from
57 – Cicero recalled from exile. Got his property and wealth back; house rebuilt at
public expense. Pompey was popular again.
Pompey used grain famine in Rome to seize command of grain supply – Ccurator
ANNONAE (curator of the grain supply). Very important, could basically start a
riot whenever he wanted by stopping grain supply. Kept this position for 5 years.
This position had proconsular imperium in Italy and abroad, control of ports,
markets, and grain train within Roman jurisdiction. Basically,it was a lot like
extraordinary military command.
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