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Lecture 9

CLST201 Week 9.docx

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 201
Bernard Kavanagh

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CLST201 Nov, 7, 2014
The Death of Caesar – Jean Leon Gerome, ca. 1860
Post – Ides of March Factions
- Anti Caesarians, who called themselves Republicans
oTheir leaders were M. Brutus, C. Cassius, the other conspirators and Sextus
Pompey (surviving son of Pompey the Great)
oThe other conspirators were all made governors
- Pro Caesarians, who supported Caesar’s policies and even his ambitions
oThey were led by Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius), M. Aemilius Lepidus and lastly
Caesars great nephew, C. Octavius, who was adopted post humorously by
Caesar as his son and heir
oC. Octavius the became legally C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, thought we usually
just call him Octavian
oHe called himself Caesar
The period between 44. BC and 31 BC
- The two factions , initially reconciled
- became mortal enemies after Brutus and Cassius went East to become the Gobenors of
Macedonia and Syria respectively
- in 43 BC Antony Lepidus and Octavian formed the second Triumvirate, this one
established by law
- Illciri rei publicae constituendae (Illvir R. P.C.)
- The second Triumvirate enacted another proscription in which M. Tullius Cicero was the
most prominent victim
- The two factions met in battle in Greece at Phillipi in 42 BC, and there both Brutus and
Cassius were killed
oWithout Mark Antony
oThey both committed suicide when they realized they were defeated
- Sextus Pompey was not at the battle and he led a piratical force against the government
of the triumvirate until his death in 36 BC

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- After Lepidus was pushed aside in part for possible collusion with Sextus Pompey this
left just M. Antony and Octavian
oSuspected Lepidus in collusion with the other side
- It was decreed in 43 BC that Julius Caesar be recognized as a god
- There after he was referred to as Divius Julius or the Divine Julius
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus
- His mother Atia was the niece of Julius Caesar
- Born in 63 BC he was not yet 19 when he became
Gold Coin found in Gual 43 BC, with Octavian on the left, Caesar on the right
Filius - son of the divine
Marriage Alliances during this period
- Octavian in 43 BC married the step daughter of Antony but after that marriage was
- He married Scribonia who was the aunt of Sextus Pompey’s wife, also Scribonia
- In 39 BC he divorced Scribonia on the day she gave birth to his daughter Julia
- In 40 BC M. Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia and they had two daughters,
Antonia Maior and Antonia Minor
- 37 BC/36 BC While still married to Octavia, M. Antony married Cleopatra according to
Egyptian not Roman law and they had three children Ptolemy, Alexander and Cleopatra
- Antony officially divorced Octavia in 32 BC
- In 38 BC Octavian married Livia who had been married to Tiberius Claudius Nero
- Her first son had his fathers full name, whom we know as Tiberius while her other son
was Nero Claudius Drusus better known as simply Drusus
oShe was already pregnant with Drusus before she married Octavian
Octavia, the sister of Octavian
- Her husbands were
oC. Claudius Marcellus
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