1. Brand Positioning (3)
Marketers must position their brands clearly in the target customers' mind. Three Levels:
1. Product Attributes (lowest): Technical attributes. Can easily be copied,
customers aren't interested in attributes but what the attributes can do for
2. Desirable Benefit (middle): How product attributes benefit customers,
description of results of benefits.
3. Beliefs and Values (highest): Strongest brands go beyond attributes/benefit
positioning, these brands pack emotion. Rely less on tangible attributes and
more on creating surprise, passion, and excitement surrounding a brand.
When positioning a brand, the marketer should establish a mission for the brand and a vision
of what the brand must be and do.
o A brand is a company's promise to deliver a specific set of features, benefits,
services, and experiences to buyers.
o Everyone in the company must live the brand.
2. Brand Sponsorship (4)
An important branding strategy decision, begins with the question "To brand, or not to brand?"
o Marketers may choose licensing as a method of branding a new product, or they
may partner with another firm to co-brand a product.
o Not all products are branded, those that are, are national brands or private
National Brand (manufacturer's brand): A brand created and owned by the manufacturer of the
o Sony/Kellogg's --> Sony Bravia/Kellogg's Frosted Flakes
o Once dominated the retail scene
Private Brand (store brand): A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or a service.
o Bad times are good for private brands, as consumers become more 'price-
conscious' they become less 'brand-conscious'.
Licensing: Selling the rights to apply a brand name, logo, or image to another manufacturer.
o Companies will license names/symbols created by other manufacturers, names
of celebrities, or popular movie characters (ex. Coca-Cola t-shirts, Avengers shirts
Co-Branding: Using the established brand names of two different companies on the same
product. (Ex. CIBC and Air Canada, Aeroplan Visa card / Nike and Apple, Sport Kit).
o Most of the time, one company licenses another company's well-known brand to
use in combination with its own.
o Because each brand dominates in a different category, the combined brands
create broader consumer appeal and greater brand equity. Companies can
expand into brand categories they would've had difficulty entering alone. o Partners must trust that the other will take good care of their brand.
Brand Management (3)
o Brand Development (4)
A company has four choices when developing a brand: Line Extensions, Brand Extensions,
Multibrands, New Brands.
o Line Extensions: Extending an existing brand name to new forms, colours, sizes,
ingredients, or flavours of an existing product category.
(Ex. Cheerio line extended to include Honey Nut Cheerios,