Week 2 Notes
Chapter 5 Learning Objectives
1) Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal. There are two types of motivation;
intrinsic (internal, stems from direct relationship between worker and the task) and extrinsic (external, stems from the work
environment external to the task). In turn, there is autonomous motivation (self-motivated by intrinsic motivators) and
controlled motivation (motivation to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward).
Motivation is different from performance in that it is only one of many contributing factors to performance (the extent
to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization.
2) The self-determination theory (SDT): theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous
3) Motivation (effort, persistence, direction, personality, general cognitive ability, intelligence) task undertaking,
emotional intelligence, and chance are all part of performance.
General Cognitive Ability is a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions.
There is a four-branch model for EI:
Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
Using emotions to facilitate thinking
Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions
Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
4) Need theories are motivational theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which
they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are separated into five categories: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-
actualization. Each need must be fulfilled before moving to the next. Once a need is fulfilled it is no longer a motivator, however
self-actualization is never completely satisfied.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory is similar to Maslow’s, but he groups safety and physiological needs into ‘existence needs,’
belongingness into ‘relatedness needs,’ and self-actualization and self-esteem into ‘growth needs,’ roughly. He also thinks that
once a need is fulfilled, we move to the next one, but if we become frustrated with that higher need we may regress to a
previous need to compensate.
McClelland’s Theory is focused more on personality traits:
Need for Achievement: strong desire to perform challenging tasks well
Need for Affiliation: strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships
Need for Power: strong desire to influence other, making a significant impact or impression
5) Expectancy Theory: process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to
occur as a result of their actions on the job.
Outcomes: consequences that follow work behaviour
Instrumentality: probability that a particular first-level outcome will be followed by a particular second-level outcome
Valence: expected value of work outcomes; extent to which they are attractive or unattractive
Expectancy: probability that a particular first-level outcome can be achieved
Force: effort directed towards a first-level outcome
The theory is that people are motivated to perform in those work activities that they find attractive and that they feel
they can accomplish, ad the attractiveness of various work activities depends on the extent to which they lead to favourable
Managers should boost expectancies, clarify rewards recognition contingencies, and appreciated diverse needs.
6) The goal setting theory is a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of your input/return
ratio to that of someone else. People are more highly motivated when they perceive equal returns. If they receive unequal
returns, either positive or negative, they may:
Perceptually distort one’s own inputs or outcomes
Perceptually distort inputs or outcomes of the comparison group
Choose another comparison person or group
Alter one’s inputs/outcomes
Leave the exchange relationship Note that people seem to be more tolerant of overpayment, people only tend to compare themselves to others of their
gender. Management can account for this theory by updating salaries on a regular basis, as well as conducting satisfaction
7) The goal setting theory is a process theory that goals are motivational when they are specific and challenging, and
when organizational members are committed to them and feedback about progress towards goal attainment is provided.
These goals will direct members to apply persistent effort and use strategies to attain goals, increasing performance. You may
futher increase motivation by having members participate in setting their own goals, by rewarding them, and by supporting
There are three different types of goal orientations
Learning Goal Orientation: preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new
skills and mastering new situations. Useful for new and difficult tasks.
Performance-Prove Goal Orientation: preference to obtain favourable judgement about the outcome of one’s
performance; drives challenging, yet attainable work where the member doesn’t necessarily have to learn new skills.
Distal Goals: long-term or end goals
Proximal Goals: short-term or sub goals
Proximal goals break down distal goals into smaller achievements. These are more useful as they provide more regular
feedback and deliver a more frequent sense of accomplishment.
Note that goals don’t necessarily have to be conscious to have an effect on motivation. Subconscious goals may also
attain this through priming (showing pictures of winning athletes)
8) There are vast cultural differences across the globe, and theories of motivation/process cannot stay stagnant in order
to remain effective. Some societies view group and social goals as much more important than individual goals, and therefore
can not use the same set. With the equity theory, this could prove detrimental if equality is more important. Intrinsic goals may
only apply to developed countries. Finally, goal setting would have to be significantly adjusted based on power different, and
may actually be opposed where the culture is “being-oriented” and people only work as much as they need to live.
9) Performance is a function of motivation, as well as personality, GCA, EI, understanding, and chance. Perceptions of
expectancy and instrumentality influence motivation, as do specific and challenging goals that people are committed to and
that are accompanied with feedback. Motivation results in performance if the member is capable (EI, GCA), if they understand
the task, and if they are lucky. To the extent that performance leads to rewards that fulfill individual needs and are positively
valent, they’ll be motivational. Equitable rewards have a positive effect on motivation and satisfaction. Good performance
leads to job satisfaction when rewarded, and job satisfaction leads to strong performance.
(See exhibit 5.8 on page 170)
Chapter 6 Learning Objectives
1) You can tie pay to performance using a Piece-Rate (pay system in which individuals are paid a sum for each unit of
production completed. We use this to make wage incentive plans, either paying employees directly for the amount produced,
or by paying them a flat rate and adding bonuses for extra items produced.
Potential problems with this system are:
Differential opportunity (unfair, better equip in some departments)