Week 3 Notes
Chapter 4 Learning Objectives
1) Values are broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs to others. Differences in values rise from both diverse
cultural and generation workforces and customers.
Hofstede’s Study revealed some major differences sprouting from culture in workers: masculinity, femininity, power
distance, uncertainty, avoidance individualism vs. collectivism, and long/short-term orientation. x
This means that organizational business theories will not always translate well across cultures. We need to learn to
appreciate global customers, and we can start doing this by developing global employees.
2) Attitudes are fairly stable evaluative tendencies to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or
category of people.
Your beliefs along with your values contribute to your attitude, which in turn provokes behaviour. We can change our
attitudes by changing either beliefs or values through persuasion. This is often enacted through emotional appeal.
3) Job Satisfaction is a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. Some key contributes to job satisfaction
Discrepancy (a theory that job satisfaction stems from the difference between job outcomes wanted and outcome that
are perceived to be actually obtained
Distributive Fairness: fairness that occurs when people get what they think they deserve, based on the inputs and
outcomes of people in similar situations. This relates to the equity theory, which states that satisfaction stems from
your input to output ratio in comparison to that of another person.
Procedural Fairness: fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable.
This is enacted through consistent procedures, the use of accurate info, and allowance for two-way communication,
and the allowance for appeals
Interactional Fairness: when people feel they’ve received respectful and informative communication about an
You may already have a disposition towards satisfaction/dissatisfaction based on your previous experiences and
environment and you genetics
Mood (less intense, long-lasting and more diffuse feelings) and emotions (intense, often short-lived feelings caused by
a particular event) also play a key role in satisfaction
Emotional Contagion: tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or groups
Emotional Regulation: requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in their job behaviour in spite of
their true mood or emotions
Other general contributors are:
o Mentally challenging work
o Adequate compensation
o Career opportunities
o People (not just friendliness, but usefulness)
4) There are definite, but imperfect relationships between satisfaction and absenteeism, turnover, performance, OCB,
and customer satisfaction
Absence from work: job satisfaction facilitates mental health, which leads to enthusiastic attendance. However, some
missed work is unavoidable, even satisfied may skip work to do something they love even more, if absence is not paid
for then employees with high economic need will be less likely to skip, regardless of satisfaction, and the culture of the
job (how much work it’s acceptable to miss) will likely have a direct influence on both satisfied and unsatisfied
Turnover: a contributor to the intention to quit. But satisfaction is only one factor; others include “shocks” (marital
breakup, job offers, birth of a child, etc), commitment to the organization as a whole, community ties, and job market.
Performance: this depends on the cause of satisfaction. If employees are satisfied because of interesting, challenging
work, they are likely to have high performance rates.
OCB (organizational Citizenship Behaviour): voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational
effectiveness. This must be voluntary, spontaneous, contributional to effectiveness, and unlikely to be rewarded.
Satisfied employees are more likely to exhibit this behaviour
Customer Satisfaction and Profit: satisfied employees have an infectious attitude, which may translate to customers,
ad result in a good customer experience. This is directly related to profit 5)
Affective Commitment: based on identification and involvement with an organization
Continuance Commitment: based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization
Normative Commitment: based on ideology or a feeling of obligation to an organization
Organizations can foster affective commitment with interesting, satisfying work and clear roles and job expectations.
Continuance commitment occurs when perks like pension funds rapid promotion, and community integration are built up.
Normative (I should stay here) commitment is attained with reimbursements in training and development programs, and
identification with product/service offers (important, sustainable, etc.)
Chapter 13Learning Objectives
Stressors: environmental events or condition that