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Lecture 3

Week 3 Notes

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Queen's University
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Week 3 Notes Chapter 4 Learning Objectives 1) Values are broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs to others. Differences in values rise from both diverse cultural and generation workforces and customers. Hofstede’s Study revealed some major differences sprouting from culture in workers: masculinity, femininity, power distance, uncertainty, avoidance individualism vs. collectivism, and long/short-term orientation. x This means that organizational business theories will not always translate well across cultures. We need to learn to appreciate global customers, and we can start doing this by developing global employees. 2) Attitudes are fairly stable evaluative tendencies to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Your beliefs along with your values contribute to your attitude, which in turn provokes behaviour. We can change our attitudes by changing either beliefs or values through persuasion. This is often enacted through emotional appeal. 3) Job Satisfaction is a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. Some key contributes to job satisfaction are:  Discrepancy (a theory that job satisfaction stems from the difference between job outcomes wanted and outcome that are perceived to be actually obtained  Distributive Fairness: fairness that occurs when people get what they think they deserve, based on the inputs and outcomes of people in similar situations. This relates to the equity theory, which states that satisfaction stems from your input to output ratio in comparison to that of another person.  Procedural Fairness: fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. This is enacted through consistent procedures, the use of accurate info, and allowance for two-way communication, and the allowance for appeals  Interactional Fairness: when people feel they’ve received respectful and informative communication about an outcome  You may already have a disposition towards satisfaction/dissatisfaction based on your previous experiences and environment and you genetics  Mood (less intense, long-lasting and more diffuse feelings) and emotions (intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular event) also play a key role in satisfaction  Emotional Contagion: tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or groups  Emotional Regulation: requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in their job behaviour in spite of their true mood or emotions  Other general contributors are: o Mentally challenging work o Adequate compensation o Career opportunities o People (not just friendliness, but usefulness) 4) There are definite, but imperfect relationships between satisfaction and absenteeism, turnover, performance, OCB, and customer satisfaction  Absence from work: job satisfaction facilitates mental health, which leads to enthusiastic attendance. However, some missed work is unavoidable, even satisfied may skip work to do something they love even more, if absence is not paid for then employees with high economic need will be less likely to skip, regardless of satisfaction, and the culture of the job (how much work it’s acceptable to miss) will likely have a direct influence on both satisfied and unsatisfied employees.  Turnover: a contributor to the intention to quit. But satisfaction is only one factor; others include “shocks” (marital breakup, job offers, birth of a child, etc), commitment to the organization as a whole, community ties, and job market.  Performance: this depends on the cause of satisfaction. If employees are satisfied because of interesting, challenging work, they are likely to have high performance rates.  OCB (organizational Citizenship Behaviour): voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness. This must be voluntary, spontaneous, contributional to effectiveness, and unlikely to be rewarded. Satisfied employees are more likely to exhibit this behaviour  Customer Satisfaction and Profit: satisfied employees have an infectious attitude, which may translate to customers, ad result in a good customer experience. This is directly related to profit 5)  Affective Commitment: based on identification and involvement with an organization  Continuance Commitment: based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization  Normative Commitment: based on ideology or a feeling of obligation to an organization Organizations can foster affective commitment with interesting, satisfying work and clear roles and job expectations. Continuance commitment occurs when perks like pension funds rapid promotion, and community integration are built up. Normative (I should stay here) commitment is attained with reimbursements in training and development programs, and identification with product/service offers (important, sustainable, etc.) Chapter 13Learning Objectives 6)  Stressors: environmental events or condition that
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