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Lecture 4

Week 4 Notes

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Week 4 Notes Chapter 2Notes  Personality: relatively stable psychological characteristics that determine our reactions in different situations  ‘Disposition approach’ introduced in 1950’s-1960’s, people have stagnant characteristics  Little proof resulted in ‘situational approach: behaviour influenced by organizational setting  ‘Interactionalist approach’ or ‘interactionalism,’ is a combination of the two  in ‘weak’ situation (not clear how a person should behave) personality is key, in ‘strong’ situations (military) personality is of little consequence Five Factor Model of Personality  Extraversion: sociable and talkative vs. withdrawn and shy (important for interpersonal interaction)  Emotional Stability: stable and confident vs. depressed and anxious (better interactions with co-workers, customers)  Agreeableness: tolerant and cooperative vs. cold and rude (important for teamwork, cooperation)  Conscientiousness: dependable and responsible vs. careless and impulsive (general job performance)  Openness to Experience: curious and original vs. dull and unimaginative (job requiring creativity  Cross-cultural, independent, and genetic (hereditary)  These predict your overall satisfaction job performance and success, ability to work with others Locus of Control  Locus of Control: beliefs relating to whether your life is ultimately constrolled by internal or external factors  Externals believe in fate, luck powerful people controlling everything, prone to stress, less significant overall achievement  Internals believe in free will and hard work, they cope with stress better, are more successful, and more satisfied Self-Monitoring  Self-Monitoring: degree to which a person regulates their appearance, emotions, behaviour in social situations  High self-motivators do well in social settings, interpersonal roles, and tend to be promoted faster (conforming to bosses ideals)  Low self-monitors heart on their sleeve) are good in ambiguous situations and in making chages and being innovative (going against the grain) Self-Esteem  Self-Esteem: amount of confidence, positive/negative self-evaluation  Behavioural Plasticity Theory: people with low self-esteem are more pliable in social situations  Low self-esteem types don’t take direct criticism well  High self-esteem types are higher performers, and more satisfied, and more resilient to strain Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Business Positive and Negative Affectivity  Positive Affectivity: views world and self in positive light  Negative Affectivity: views world and self in negative light  Determines emotions, PA generally more satisfied, creative, NA more prone to stress, unproductive behaviour Proactive Personality  Proactive Behaviour: taking initiative to improve your circumstances  Proactive Personality: stable tendency to take initiative in all regards of life  Associated with satisfaction and overall success General Self-Efficacy  General Self-Efficacy (GSE): an individual motivational trait that reflects their belief in their own ability to succeed  GSE is shaped through experience (history of successes vs. failures) Core Self-Efficacy  CSE: broad personality concept, evaluation of self-worth  Evaluation determined by four traits; self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism (emotional stability)  One of the best predictors of job performance What is Learning?  Learning: changes in behaviour due to practice and experience  There are four types of organizational skills learnt:  Practical Skills: job-specific skills, knowledge, technical competence  Intrapersonal Skills: problem solving, critical thinking, alternative work process, risk-taking  Interpersonal Skills: interactive skills like communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution  Cultural Awareness: social norms, company expectations, and goals, priorities, and operations  Operant Learning: subject learns how to perform in order to achieve certain outcomes Increasing the Probability of Behaviour  Reinforcement: w
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