ECON 590 Lecture Notes - Long Parliament, Stateless Society, Short Parliament

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
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January 14, 2013 (Week 2, Lecture 1)
Beyond a monadic definition
-Multidimensional
-Heuristic framework
What is politics about?
-Political ideas
-The community and its affairs
-Interests and their intersection
oExpress what we want or don’t want
oWe don't want to assume people’s interests are going to line up
consistently
oNeed to take into account the inconsistencies
oWhat happens when individuals interests intersect with each
other
How do interests interact with one another
The ease with which interests can conflict or complement
oInterests can co-exist separately from one another
They are discrete interests
Don't have an impact on one another
-Power, influence, and authority
oMaking sure one and one’s interests prevails over others – power
Frequently constructed as something good, but when it is
exercised it is always negative
oInfluence – conflicts of interest
-Rules
-Governance: choosing the rules
Interconnections
-Multidimensional definition encourages analysis of interconnections:
oCommunity shaped by ideas and rules
Ideas and rules change over time
The way in which communities look will change over time
oRules reflect interests
oThink about whose interests are served
January 17, 2013 (Week 2, Lecture 2)
What is Governance?
-Authoritative choices for community
-Regulating public affairs
-Decisions implemented by exercising power, influence, and authority
oProcess of decision making, regulation, and enforcement
-Government, non universal, is the institutions established to undertake
the process of governance
-Does one need a government to engage in governance?
-Characteristics of governance in societies having a state and
governmental institutions
-Continuous organization of official functions bound by rules
oMonopoly on use of force (private individuals can’t use force for
own interest legitimately)
oHighly institutionalized
oRules are codified
-Classes – division of labor
oFundamental separation of government and governed
-No state in existence where governors are employed in meaningful
activities other than governing
-Ruling class sustained by surplus produced by community
January 21, 2013 (Week 3, Lecture 1)
-Comparing Societies: State vs. Stateless
oRecall stateless societies from last week and their characteristics
oNow consider governed by states, and the thing that makes
them different is the reversal of characteristics of stateless
organizations
Continuously organized
Highly institutionalized
Rules codified
Monopoly on use of force
oClasses division of labor
Separation of rulers from governed
Ruling class sustained by a surplus produced by the
community
Only very recently has a man as a species developed a
state, and even the modern state is very recent
oWe want to look at:
Functions of the state
Importance of supreme political authority
Origins of society
Universal functions of the state
Defines the community
oAll decide who is part of the community and
who is not (American-Mexican border)
(citizenship tests, internationally)
Conduct relations with others
o Do not think about the political world as
Canadian citizens who need to not worry about
the threat of attack, enslavement, and
degradation by another state (think of
Canadian-Australian first nations)
Maintain Internal/Domestic order
oThe enforcement of rules, the enforcement of
pattern maintenance, (to continue the trend
that keeps those with power in power) [i.e.
Monarch passing on throne to children)
Engage in economic redistribution
oProduce labor, capital, goods, income, etc. The
emergence of a ruling class demands
redistribution
Engage and maintain infrastructure
oPublic works, in the sense that they are a part
of the public sphere (pyramids at Giza)
January 24, 2013 (Week 3, Lecture 2)
-The essay can be on a historical topic
oFunctions of the state
Define the community
Conduct relations with others
Maintain internal order
Engage in economic redistribution
Establish and maintain community infrastructure
-Lukes’ power and authority
oNo state can perform this massive range of activities by power or
influence alone
oThe exercise of power costs a great deal so authority is so
important
Cheap, doesn’t take energy/resources
oEvery state must have power to ensure that if authority doesn't
work, the state must force a solution (impose authority through
state)
-FOCUS: importance of supreme political authority
Who is entitled to command, who must obey
-The idea of supreme authority in politics (philosophically) was not well
articulated in the past
-Supreme authority sovereignty
oWhat is sovereignty?

Document Summary

How do interests interact with one another. The ease with which interests can conflict or complement: interests can co-exist separately from one another other. Don"t have an impact on one another. Power, influence, and authority: making sure one and one"s interests prevails over others power. Frequently constructed as something good, but when it is exercised it is always negative: influence conflicts of interest. Multidimensional definition encourages analysis of interconnections: community shaped by ideas and rules. The way in which communities look will change over time: rules reflect interests, think about whose interests are served. Decisions implemented by exercising power, influence, and authority: process of decision making, regulation, and enforcement. Government, non universal, is the institutions established to undertake the process of governance. Characteristics of governance in societies having a state and. Continuous organization of official functions bound by rules governmental institutions own interest legitimately: monopoly on use of force (private individuals can"t use force for, highly institutionalized, rules are codified.