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Electrical and Computer Engineering Courses
ELEC 294

Chapter 2 :“Employers, Employees, and the Logic of Collective Action” (pp. 119-27) “Social Inequality” (pp. 128-161) Key Thinkers/Terms: Summarize the major thinkers within the chapters, detailing who they are, what they did, and how it relates to the chapter topic (e.g. Ch.2 relates Work, Ch.3 relates to Social Inequality, and so on...). A good paragraph each should suffice. If you find a new term in your section and are not sure what thinker it belongs to, list the term and give its definition at the end. UNION Decline The end of chapter two does not discuss a particular person and their theories, rather unionization is evaluated over the past 50 years in Canada. The statistics of unions concerning males and females are discussed here. Some of the unions in Canada include the Canadian Union of Public Employees, Alberta Union of Public Employees, Ontario Secondary school teachers’ Federation, and Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union. These along with numerous other Unions amount to 4.15 Million Canadians according to the 2010 Census. Although these numbers seem substantial, the percentages of unions has been steadily decreasing from the start of the 1980’s. Private Service Sector Jobs The emergence of private service sector jobs can be accredited for the decline in the early 1980’s of the amount of unionized workers in Canada. These were jobs that were once public, such as post offices and other local jobs. Also, many fast food chains were privatizing. Canadian Union Percentages dropped from 35% to 31.25 in the 2010 census. When broken down into genders surprisingly the amounts of men involved in Unions are the ones decreasing over the past few decades. The amount of women in unions has hovered around 31% consistently since 1980, while men have declined from 41.2 to 31.6% in 2004. In fact, females percentages in 2004 was 31.8 marking the first time in Canadian history the female labor involvement surpassed male participation. Universal Decline The reason that these private sectors were attracting those from the labor forces was simply the wages offered. The average hourly wage for unionized men in 2010, was 26$ opposed 23$ in. This is not a substantial enough difference to consistently attract those to a life of labor regardless of the benefits of belonging to a union. Whereas for women have a minimum wage in unions of 23$ and hour compared to an average of 15$ in non-unionized jobs explaining a lot of the reasons for a steady percentage of females involvement. The decline in male participation in unions can also be attributed to job loss in the blue collar area of labor, due to the free trade agreements Canada has with Mexico and America. Female Inequality Chapter 3 focuses primarily on social inequality starting off with wrestler Carol Huynh. Carol won the gold medal in freestyle wrestling in 2008 in Beijing and post-retirement won the bronze in the 2012 London games. These were monumental moments for Canada, not solely due to the terrific performancth, but as a result of how far female involvement has progressed over the 20 century. In 1896 women were prohibited from participating in the games and just over 110 years later they are winning the events. This also defines the accepting and promotion of Canadian diversity as Huynh’s parents were refugees that fled Ho Chi Minh city during its communist reign Opportunity The question of opportunity and its relevance to success is analyzed in athletics, education, and future quality of life. It is first discussed on an athletic perspective and how it truly affects the quality of preparation and mastery of a sport or activity. An example is drawn from the Vancouver Winter Games where the majority of the Canadian long track skaters were centralized around Calgary. It is assumed this is due to the immaculate facilities that Calgary has to offer as a result of hosting the 1988 Olympic Winter Games. In terms of education it is established that there are primary, secondary, and post-secondary educational institutions in Canada, however the equality between them is questionable. The curriculum is described multi-dimensional consisting of pragmatic, unofficial, masked, hidden and a social process curriculum. It is argued that variables such as money, time, material sources, location of school, teacher strength, and type of school (private/public). These are factors that can contribute to academic success and eventually lead to a bright future mostly based of the opportunities one is presented. Encyclopedia Summary: Detail each entry title, its author, and the page number(In the same order). Length should be roughly 1 paragraph (5-6 solid sentences) for each entry. Transnationals by Ray Loveridge (pg. 658-659) Transnational Corporations (TNC), also known as multinational corporations (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE), are firms that own of control income-generating assets in more than one company. In the 1980s the amount of exports/imports was overtaken by the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) and companies started looking for new, cheaper sources of labour as well as new local product markets. The design, production and distribution stages all take place in different countries and the increasing use of technology as well as new transportation systems has made it possible to make those stages as quick and easy as possible. TNCs do not often have a good effect on the host countries and governments can become dependent on FDIs to provide jobs and taxes. There are also good and bad indirect effects of TNCs, the plants can change the self-identity of a small community and become exploitive of its workers but plants can also increase the lifestyle of a different small community by bringing in jobs. Unions by Judith Stepan-Norris (pg. 662) ‘Collections of workers that join together to defend their common interests as employees’.Under a union, employee’s rights are protected by a contract that outlines the terms and conditions of the labour process. Things like wages, hours, benefits, and what the managers are allowed to do are all agreed upon in the contract. Union representatives are also commonly allowed within the workplace, they are people who tell the workers what their rights are and represent the employees against the employers. Strikes can occur once contracts expire or as “wildcat” strikes which are organized without the union’s approval. U.S. unions are composed of two types: craft (vertical) unions who organize skilled workers by craft, and industrial (horizontal) unions who organize all workers who work in a specific workplace by industry. The amount of unions varies over time, place, and industry; North American unions have been declining since the 1950s. Some unions, especially in Europe, can be tied to political parties but in the U.S. though the unions might participate with political parties, they rarely form lasting ties. Unions have been charged of being corrupt and unresponsive to workers needs but many can also provide an important voice for the employees in the workplace. Meritocracy by Gad Yair (pg. 391-392) Meritocracy has three related meanings: first, it denotes a society where the brightest and most conscientious people become the most successful and get the most important positions. Second, it refers to an elite social class that has a high position in society because of their abilities and attainments. Third, it outlines the criteria that high status individuals have more relative to others such as prestige, power, and economic reward. In reality, meritocracy is based on the inequality of outcome but theoretically it should be the outcome of equal circumstances that result in some people obtaining higher positions but fairly. Stratification and Inequality, Theories of by David B. Grusky (pg. 622-624) A stratification system is a group of industries that have inequalities in income, political power, social honour, and other valuable goods. These systems have a few main components to make them work such as processes that make goods valuable and desirable to society, the things that set people apart and how goods are distributed across different occupations in the division of labour, and the mobility mechanisms that make it so individuals in different occupations get an unequal distribution of goods. This means that two things happen, “reward packages” of unequal value are matched to different social positions and then set apart based on how the roles are
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