Class Notes (837,691)
Canada (510,396)
English (370)
ENGL 100 (128)
Prof. (1)
Lecture

All English Notes for Fall 2012.docx

38 Pages
120 Views
Unlock Document

Department
English
Course
ENGL 100
Professor
Prof.
Semester
Fall

Description
English 100 – Introduction to Literary Study Notes for Fall 2012 September 12, 12 What are Literary Forms and Genres? - Kinds of common (Major 3 Forms) literary forms: prose, drama, poetry. (Come out of essential literary terms book) - Non-fiction, graphic novels, life writing, journalism are not as common but still - Discourage use of poetry anthology glossary, as definitions aren’t so accurate or useful - Major 3 Forms are all conventional, have no real definitions, especially for poetry. Fiction is associated mainly with narrative (storytelling) in prose. Drama is associated mainly with acting and performance. Poetry is associated mainly with figurative language and musical words made to be read orally. - Poetry. Lyric poetry is a genre. Genres of literature are kinds of literature. Genre is usually a subcategory of form. - Genres usually mean a certain kind of form or shape, how the piece of literature is written, the rules it follows and sometimes it will have a formal definition. Most often they will combine that with subject, or what the literature is about. Sometimes it is even defined as what it is about specifically. - Specific type of poetry: sonnet. It is a subform. It can be about anything but follows regulations. - Autobiography is about a life, written about the author by the author. Love poem is a genre, epic is a genre, etc. - Genres are not just subcategories – genres can cut across forms and across other genres. The Western is a genre, but the Western can be a novel, a movie, a ballad, a drama, so it cuts across literary and non-literary media. Genres can also mix with other genres EX: a science fiction epic. What is Poetry? - No definition of poetry. The most of definition use would associate it with verses written on a page - Musical form specialized on a page - Poetry tradition pushes the boundaries to include almost any language or speech combination that uses metaphor, or other figurative language that is a very broad category. Song lyrics – do they belong in poetry? Yes. - Sound poetry and concrete poetry, which is a poem that uses language arranged in a space to create meaning. EX: “Blues” which looks like love written a dozen times but also implies evolve, evil, etc. It uses writing in a different way but doesn’t use verse. - Prose-poetry – chunks of prose written in an often lyric way. It reads like th prose but is very poetic. Many writers in the 20 century used prose poetry. - Musicality and interest in language is key to poetry What is Lyric Poetry? - Lyric poetry has an individual speaker (voice) expressing what he/she feels, perceives, and thinks. (Essential Literary Terms) - It is about a state of mind, what is happening in a moment in time in some sort of situation. Not really a story, more like feelings that are being moved through. A moment of transformation for the speaker. - It could be internal, strongly expressing a personality. It could also be external, expressing a moment in time where you are seeing through someone’s eyes. External poems are perceptions, internal parts are more subjective to allude to feelings. - Page 988 – look it up later – “In the Quiet Night” The poet beginnings with description, and then you see what the speaker sees, so external. The second line is a mixture of perception and explaination (objective) and is a simile. Associate the moonlight with some kind of feelings in the mind of poet. The moon is like ---. We are invited to think about frost and moonlight; what does that tell us about the feelings of the poet. “I lift my head and watch the moon” Sudden action, then some repetition of the line. Then there is an internal action or thinking about home. In a short space images and a metaphor are communicated so that we have a feeling of this poet, even though the feelings aren’t entirely unmuddled. Home comes as a surprise, because the first line makes reader assume that the speaker is home “my bed”. The coldness suggested by the frost suggests a chill to the feelings of the poet. Examples: Sappho, Li Bo, Robert Frost - Li Bo. Did not impact for years, only until recently did it impact Western (European) literature, whose roots lie in Greek. Originally poetry was recited… - Sappho carries a lier. Birthplace of the lier. Also one of the most highly regarded poets of the Greek world. - Everywhere there’s a square bracket is not Sappho, but the translator’s invention. … means that Sappho wrote something there but we have no idea what it is. She created a massive 9 volumes of work, though there is only 1 complete poem of Sappho’s, the rest are fragments. The complete poem is “ - Many of her poems were personal poems, though they don’t always seem that way. It is thought she was the leader of an Aphrodite cult, worshiped her and believed in her. - Enchantment, a kind of incantation in “Come goddess” - Lyric poems about love have a certain character to them that is true across many of them: yearning, longing, and (beneath the surface) a kind of fascination of the undoing of the self, in reaching a state of passion that dissolves or disintegrates or in some way transforms the self. - “He looks to me to be in heaven” She’s envious of the guy who gets to talk to the woman that she loves. In the first four stanzas you get images of the physical body expressing an internal disintegrations, things leaping inside the body like the heart, bodily functions failing (paralysis of the tongue, blind). It affects her to the point where she thinks she’s dying. The other layer is in her use of metaphor, she feels fire running beneath her skin so she reaches out to an image of something impossible so she can describe something irrational. There is a sense of the self here, and she needs to look for wild metaphors to describe it. Robert Frost - Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” in Segul. Enchanting incantation, music to Frost by rhyming and rhythm. Enchantment Effects (Musical Form): Rhythm/Meter: What we call enchanting meter “Whose woods there are I think I know” iambic pentameter Alliteration: “The only other sounds the sweet…” the s’s in a row makes a melodic quality Assonance: Same thing with vowels. “The only other…” Consonance: Combination of vowel and consonance creates a lulling to the poem Rhyme: Poem – in ever quatrain the first second and fourth lines all rhyme, only the third line is different, so there is a very strong repetitive feeling to it. September 17, 12 Subject and Theme - The theme differs from the subject. The subject of Stopping by… is actually stopping by woods on a snowy evening. A traveller stopping by woods and appreciating them is the subject, which is neutral. - Subject isn’t really a literary term. It just helps us with theme… Frost: “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” - The first stanza and the following have a bunch of alliteration, imagery, and a powerful rhyming scheme, etc. It has a lulling effect with its repetition. It has the same meter too. - Creates a sense of status, fitting for the title (Stopping…) - It is time-stopping. - There’s also a sense of being outside, almost out of animate nature. It is a place of beauty, but it also has an inanimate quality to it. The lake is frozen, suggesting suspension, not something living. - Forrest - Described as ‘deep and dark’ – it is hidden from us, something we don’t know, imagery of something inscrutable, something that recedes away. There’s no meaning to be associated with what the traveller sees. - The acoustic sense of lulling – the enchantments – dissociated even from animal (his horse) - Last lines – the poet repeats two lines, which is unusual for poets. Repetition in poetry and literature is rarely there for emphasis. Repetition always involves a bit of a difference, it adds something and changes your perception of the poem. - Literal idea: poet/traveller is stopping in the woods, has miles to go. The daily life themes - Sleep is also associated with darkness and stasis. All kinds of resonances going on. Makes us wonder if maybe it’s a metaphor for life’s journey…YES. - Prof - “Miles to go before I am like the woods” (dead) - Frost would like us to think of our place in nature, and perhaps even in death. Bok: “Ubu Hubbub” - Sound poetry - Poet is completely happy with meaninglessness - Perhaps meaninglessness has some sort of sensuality, meaningfulness to it. If it were just true babble, where you couldn’t discern actual words, it wouldn’t work as well. - Enchantment differs… induce a state of musical reception. State of playfulness… Yeats: “The Lake Isle of Innisfree,” “Adam’s Curse,” “Who Goes with Fergus?” Theme versus Idea Essential lit book: Theme: The theme of a literary work conveys either directly or implicitly. A view or a value conveyed by a particular literary work. Theme is distinct from subject. Frost’s poem’s theme is the alienation or estrangement of beauty from modern life. The estranging beauty of nature. Its message would be much narrower – what is it trying to say? A theme is sort of a broad problem the literary work is trying to come to grips with. September 19, 12 Purposes of Enchantment: Literary Imagination and Social Action Yeats: “Easter, 1916” - The ‘political Yeats’ - English imperialist culture - As Yeats grew, Irish nationalism became more prominent, and Yeats was swept up in the movement because of his anti-imperialist beliefs. He supported and wrote things that were consistent with or promoted a violent ousting of the British forces - How ever he was not a violent person; he didn’t like it and was attracted to peace and calm - Was ambivalent about the violence - In the early 1900s, political nationalists tried to get home rule, independence in Ireland; their own government for domestic affairs. Before this Irish laws were past in Westminster, in London - 1914…England instantly was sucked into the WWI war effort, Irish people were not at all patriotic about England (as seen the airman poem). The war saw Irish people participating as English soldiers, etc. - Irish revolution in 1916 (Easter Uprising, 1916). The rebellion was put down by the British, there was fighting, violence, death. Revolutionary soldiers took over key places in Dublin like post offices, - Countess “Con” Markievicz, one of the only leaders in Easter uprising not executed and mentioned in the poem. She is part of the “terrible beauty being born.” - Disturbed that his art contributed to this violence. The imagination could do something…this interested Yeats and can be seen in his later poems. - The Irish people have thvid faces, and then setting (gray buildings) representing the 18 century houses of England… - A gray, dry, meaningless life…vivid faces suggest some kind of spark. - Yeats talks about mocking words, language is joking in a rather dark way. - In the poem, politeness is masking an authentic expression of the Irish people - “Hearts with one purpose alone” suggests that the Irish people are coming together - Positive: everything nature. This is contrasted with a stone in the stream, which is constantly moving and transforming. The stone just sits there, unchanged. Stone image of stasis. Irish people become animated by this one purpose - Countess “sweet/beautiful, polite” and then this is replaced by ugliness” - All of the characters become taken over by this idea of action - Positive images of the change: the removal of English rule, Yeats says he wants to remember these names, even the ones he hates or used to admire (Countess) - Even though terrible is negative, and beauty is positive, it works well to create a powerful image. - Change of clothing from the “jester” to the “green.” September 24, 12 Essay Composition The Effective Essay: Overall Structure Introduction (start off broad, end specific [thesis statement]), main paragraphs and conclusion – produces a mediocre essay. Reason? There’s lots of babble not helping your argument. Just start with the thesis. Conclusion: use conclusion to talk about how argument demonstrates your thesis (don’t restate thesis) Introduction 1. (tell the reader what you want to talk about, can tell thesis but it is acceptable to just talk about what question you are trying to answer, it is not necessary to put thesis in first paragraph, just make sure that you state the problem and that your thesis is the answer [thesis can be more than one sentence]) 2. [other things to do in intro: introduce question or problem but also tell people why it matters and what are the consequences to answering it this way; it’s a place to say what things are important to understanding the text] 3. {What you’re going to do about it – “I’m going to answer this problem by doing this: “…” Tell people the roadmap of your essay – how you’re going to do it}, main paragraph (3 Rules – 1. There can be any number of paragraphs. 2. There has to be just one point in any paragraph that is being argued. It is possible that you have a long paragraph or a short one (3 sentence or over a page long) 3. Nothing should go into a paragraph except explanation and discussion of the main, singular point of that paragraph. …Have a point statement in each paragraph, just to say this is point I want to make and then explain it. If you have to choose between excitement and clarity, go for clarity. Transitions between paragraphs – yes and no. No, forget about transitions, just make it smooth. Suddenly moving from one paragraph to another about a completely different topic should not be strange because your essay should be structured so there is no surprise. However if it isn’t obvious, use something smoother. Never end a paragraph by saying what your next paragraph will be about – it undermines the reading effect, it’s a rhetoric problem Conclusion: The challenges of writing a conclusion that is circular, relates back to your beginning. It does not broaden out from your essay to take on the world, it goes backwards. Explicitly name the points you made and how they relate to one another, and they should imply your thesis. It is not a reversal of the introduction, however. We want an integrated knot that ties everything together. You can create new ideas by relating the points in the conclusion, it asks the reader to see a structure to your ideas. Conclusions aren’t summaries; they are the last lap of an argument. When you get to the end go back and revise your introduction so it reflects your body more. Introduction to ‘Wonder’ in Literature Riddle, charm, enchantment – none of those are special literary terms. They provide a framework. Literature is meant to produce pleasures, emotions like fear, happiness, etc. The idea of wonder is a kind of cognitive emotion, psychologists disagree about what wonder is. Aristotle on wonder: Wonder is the most important effect. Tragedy must produce wonder. On the emotional level it must produce fear, sadness, the recognition of surprising realities. Wonder is an emotion tied to knowing and unknowing. It is important as a spur to knowledge, it draws you in. Notes on the exam: 2 hour exam, will not be composed of essay questions, it will be composed of 2 kinds of shorter essay questions 1)literary terms – what the term means and give an example of how it works in required texts we’ve read (found in literary book) 2) interpretive question – given a passage or quotation of required readings, asked to do your best to tell us what it means, what its significance it in the context of the work in which it’s drawn. EX: lines from a play, lines from lyrical poem, etc. The Opening of Euripedes’ Medea Recommend reading: a preamble in the World Anthology to Medea, those summaries are pretty good. September 26, 12 Tragedy (as a genre of drama) - Two major genres of drama: tragedy and comedy (can be mixed of course) - Wonder can be linked to enchantment, sympathy for protagonist in tragedy. Sympathy doesn’t mean you identify with their personality, it means that you could understand why the person is the way they are and why they’re doing what they’re doing. Because you can understand it, it becomes something you learn about the world and/or about yourself. You learn about the experiences of others. - Key to Aristotle’s wonder idea: Learning something unexpected and surprising. But it has to be logical, intelligible and comprehensible. - If it’s arbitrary and inexplicable it’s bad – according to Aristotle. - Wonder: unexpected and surprising Euripedes’ Medea as tragedy: - Last lines of Medea. This explicitly states this idea of Wonder. What we thought isn’t confirmed. Peel away reality, and when you learn in tragedy it’s going to involve pity and fear and something horrible. Two Major Genres of Drama Tragedy: has a serious tone and is moving, wants to get at your inner feelings and make you worry and feel for the protagonist. Disaster and suffering are important to the plot of a tragedy, but are not always the outcome. The outcome of tragedy is usually positive in some way. At the end of Medea the protagonist gets away and Jason suffers. Tragedy is usually focused on one protagonist, in this case Medea. Morality is usually very complicated in tragedies. Protagonist is distinct from hero and the struggles they go through may not have heroic outcomes. Hero refers to a certain kind of protagonist. - Hero: male-bonding-thing. Haha. Comedy: Involve disintegrating worlds, mixed up world. Comedy ends in celebration. The kind of world revealed to us is one of joy, we learn things like the healing power of love, etc. - Typically both tragedies and comedies involve the world being knit together again. Medea’s tragic recognition o She recognizes even at the start that killing her children is a horrible thing to do, but she does it anyway o She recognizes that women have restrictive lives in her society. It is unexpected but logical. o She does say what she thinks her mistake was (tragic recognition) look for error of judgment (hamartia, tragic flaw). It is a phrase that is a much later moralizing thinger. Mistakes through neglect. o Her mistake was to betray her family and people in her homeland and link up with Jason and serve him as his wife. In linking up with him she established a new bond (they swore oaths) though they didn’t have a marriage ceremony. This bond of oaths – she has served him acting only in his interests. She has had to give her first duty to him and betray her people in order to do so. She says that that was the problem with her, what she did wrong. She only sees it when he betrays her. So her betrayal was in a sense a mirror of Jason’s betrayal of her. o Medea is sympathetic to use because she represents women in Greek society, powerless women. She emulates the male hero but she is caught between two phases. Jason’s (not?) tragic recognition o Jason does not really recognize much – he ends up breaking oaths o He doesn’t have recognition (he’s an idiot in the play.) - Tragic recognition for the audience Sources the prof used: Andrew Wels, Roots of Lyric, Helen Foley, Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. October 1, 12 Wonder in Medea Patriarchal hero being questioned - Getting into Aristotle’s idea of wonder…think about Medea’s foreignness, she is unlike most protagonists in classical tragedies, she is not Greek and is therefore a foreigner and a barbarian to the Greek world. Other commentators suggested that people from there might even look different. The Greeks would have expected differentness, that these people would be strongly marked. This is communicated in Medea by the things people say about Medea. - She is described as a suspicious foreigner; she is almost referred to as an animal. Jason refers to her as uncivilized. In that context it is clear she is expected not be as civilized. - She is also associated with elemental pre-Olympian gods. She is associated with nature gods and in particular Helios the god of the sun. She is actually more close in blood kinship with the sphinx than she is to Jason in blood. So it is a whole racial level of thinking about Medea in this play. - Clearly when she speaks and does something, she does not completely conform to this idea of herself – she is actually quite intelligent, etc. So the playwright is not interested in sustaining this view of her. - Jason is supposed to seem like an idiot. - The fact that she’s foreign plays into the plot because Medea is somebody who is severed from the idea of Greekness (she’s just a foreigner and so Jason says pretty much that she doesn’t count as a wife) - A lot of Euripides messages have his audience think that Medea is quite strange as the protagonist. Even though this is strange and other and unexpected, Medea is still treated evenly… Dramatic as a Form: text of dialogue and spectacle - What is the text? o Refer to some kind of body of signs that one has to interpret. Sign elements that we have to put together and read, including stage directions and dialogue. Visual things as text to read count too. - Dialogue o What people say, even if its an aside, a monologue, soliloquies, etc. In the Tempest almost everything you read is the dialogue. - Spectacle o Aristotle called it the spectacle, or the staging. It may be part of your written text (Prospero takes off his robes), or it is invented by the people who produce and enact the play. Decisions about costuming, etc. Dramatic as a Form: narrative units, scenes, acts Shakespeare’s The Tempest Act I, Scenes 1-2 - The tempest itself is the first thing that happens and people are freaking out. The Boatswain is ordering the nobles to go below deck, etc. - It is useful to divide up a play into plot points or scenes. - In the first scene, the shipmaster and boatswain have a discussion - Another scene almost happens that sets up a new dynamic on stage – the nobles ENTER. - Units depend on the exit and entrance of different characters, different dynamics happen. - The first scene can be divided into three units Units of Scene 1 - First unit: there’s very little (the beginning is there because it not worrisome because things are happening the way things should be) Everything is working in a proper hierarchy, there is communication in order to organize and save themselves. - Next unit: The courtiers are just oblivious and an obstacle. They create chaos. The boatswain gets irritated with them and the royalty get angry that they are being yelled at by a ‘commoner.’ Causes a discussion of how this man is a criminal and reversing authority. Why do three courtiers come back on stage? Restore natural order. - The splitting metaphor at the end of the scene seems to echo the ship literally breaking apart (1), but it also talks about family and friends dying and being split apart. Our lives with others are disintegrating (2). On a third level it also echoes the topsy-turvy, collision between the courtiers and mariners. - We don’t hear from Ferdinand in this scene! He doesn’t reveal anything about himself. We see him but we don’t know anything about him. He is the mystery man that appears in scene 1. Units of Scene 2 - Unit 1: We have a different dynamic, we move to an intimate discussion between Prospero and his daughter talking about the tempest and about her own path. - The move to act 2; changes can be formal. Some changes can just be aesthetic. Suddenly everything is being spoken in verse. Suddenly everyone’s talking in iambic pentameter. It gives an image of a more artistically mastered world as opposed to the world of mostly prose speech in the first scene. - We’re introduced to Prospero as a figure of mastery. - The rest of the scene and the units move the story forward but also introduce important characters. Prospero (powerful, made mistakes in the past, is a suffering person, thinks he knows Miranda’s thoughts and mind [what she remembers], etc) and Miranda (initially come across as sympathetic, emotional, innocent or naïve, though she is more intelligent than one first thinks [inquisitive and thoughtful], etc.) One of the Major Themes of the Play – Art and Creativity - Struggles with the imaginative life and art/creativity; worries about that as something internal that alienates one from the real, social world. Prospero loved his studying and then asked his brother to take over management and then he gets betrayed. - Metaphors and imagery: it seems that Antonio (evil brother) – what has happened to him can be described in terms of an art. That politics is a kind of art for him. Pg 1671 – “liberal arts, etc” Strong image of separation in that line. - Bottom of the page – knew created the creatures that were lying as if he were a sculptor. Metaphor is musical. - Line 100 – “Like one who having in the truth…all prerogative.” – Creates this lie and then believes it. By virtue of speaking it, he brings it to be. For Antonio there’s no distinction between reality and play-acting. He plays the duke so he is the duke. The play becomes the reality and he similarly fashions the people around him. - Imagination and creativity are not just separate from the real world but can flow back into it. Antonio and Prospero are both self-centered. They are mirror images of each other except that one turns into himself but the other turns to others. - This theme of the role of art, the proper use of art, creativity, returned to again and again throughout the play. There is never a clear message but it is thought about in many ways by the characters. October 3, 12 Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Act I Scene ii Later dramatic units as character introductions: Ariel, Caliban, and Ferdinand (characterization and plot role) - For example, Ariel comes in as a spirit and we find out that he’s volatile, not particularly moral but not bad either, quite playful and creative. Associated with music and allusions. - Caliban can be connected to Ariel because they are both slaves of Prospero and they want their freedom. While Ariel is bright, Caliban is more a dark, destructive creature and thing of flesh and blood. - The name Caliban is an anagram for cannibal. Self destructive. Opposite of an image of social order, civilization. - Caliban is also represented as a self-centred person, as he has a fantasy of raping Miranda (other people are for his use) to populate the world with other Calibans. - Ferdinand – We have heard about him sitting in a dejected slump on the beach first off. Then he follows Ariel’s music and his (actual) poem. It works as a charm in rousing Ferdinand – it takes him out of his despair from having ‘lost’ his father. - The music and poetry draw Ferdinand into action. He is now questing. The poem also presents a riddle – how is it the king’s death (his body is floating around) has been strangely turned into something beautiful. - The music Ferdinand recognizes as ‘divine’ (motif of divinity). It replaces the father, as it tells Ferdinand where to go and what to be. - There’s lots of crying and ‘cries’ in the play - Caliban talks a lot about learning language, what is good language, etc. - **Ferdinand – Prospero’s so mean to Ferdinand. He sees Miranda, falls in love, and Prospero says no it’s not going to happen buddy. Prospero says that Ferdinand is no better than Caliban. This is because Prospero knows he’s Alonso’s son and will inherit the kingdom and all the money. So he’ll benefit from Alonso’s death. Who he is, is determined by Alonso’s identity still. He hasn’t asserted any other identity yet, so that’s still what he is in Prospero’s eyes. Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Act II Motif of sleep - Motif: a recurring feature of a literary work or drama. Usually an image, symbol, idea, situation or theme. Can be repeated within one text or across genres. - Ariel’s magic causes some of the people to fall asleep. Sebastian and Antonio are left awake and they decide to attempt to murder the king. “My strong imagination sees a crown dropping upon thy head” Sebastian: “What?” “Do you not hear me speak?” Right away Antonio decides to do something nasty, and being the more intelligent of the two he devises a plan to take the throne and giving it to Sebastian. There is a repetition of sleep in this section and it becomes a motif. - “To be asleep with eyes wide open…and yet so fast asleep” – meant to be humorous in part. Antonio responds that Sebastian needs to wake up and seize his fortune. The “sleepy language” begins to make sense, it comes from within Antonio. “There’s meaning in thy snores.” - There is a layering of physical sleep and then, above that, there is imagery of people who are described as exercising their imagination and seeing a reality that could be as a kind of sleep. As if he is asleep. A way to think about this is to think why bother? Why not just have Antonio say “kill them!” Yet instead Shakespeare associates this plotting with sleep? - Antonio describing Gonzalo: “Although this lord of weak remembrance…he that sleeps here swims” - Insulting Gonzalo with really dehumanizing imagery. Referring to Gonzalo as a persuasion machine, an abstract machine, doesn’t matter if he dies. Very little value. Though the avert aim here is to tell Sebastian that if Gonzalo were dead (and Ferdinand being thought dead already), he’d be king. - Line 240 “Say this were death…” – compares sleeping to death, says there’s no difference. - Brother no better than the earth he lies on. He might as well be dead. That’s how the sleepers are dehumanized. - Sleep imagery around the sleep talkers. Why would Shakespeare wrap this all up in the imagery of sleep. There are 3 meanings of sleep here. 1) Literal sleep. 2) Idea of sleep as a place of dream, imagination and perhaps creativity. 3) Implicitly – Sleep is a good image for unconsciousness to others. Alonso has no idea what the two are plotting. He’s completely unaware of what’s going on. Unaware of what is going on outside the self. Like how Prospero was so wrapped up in his studies that he didn’t do his dukedom properly. - Antonio is asleep to the lives of these other men. He just reimagines them as objects and dispensable resources. - Caliban lying there reminds everyone of the sleepers in the last scene. He is perceived as inhuman. There’s an echo to the inhuman reference that Antonio makes to the sleepers on the ground. October 10, 12 Shakespeare’s The Tempest Act II  Motif of divinity/ideal (as power, as virtue) Gods and goddesses as a motif - Sometimes it doesn’t just mean one thing - Miranda and Ferdinand think each other divine. - Caliban says about Stephano: “That’s a brave God and bears celestial liquor” - Caliban thinks Stephano is very powerful, perhaps even a god, which is humourous since he’s a servant/butler. - Miranda thinks Ferdinand is beautiful and therefore is virtuous. Prospero says this is not so. - Stephano is referred to as a god-like figure. Shakespeare’s The Tempest Acts 3 and 4 Act III - Ferdinand and Miranda have their first talk and confess their love to each other; ultimately decide to marry - Ferdinand: “I am in my condition a price…there resides to make me slave…and for your sake I’m your patient log-man.” o Motif/Theme – Servants/masters - Miranda: “At my unworthiness…whether you will or no.” o Motif/Theme – servants/masters  Think of Miranda’s character: she’s quite bold to express everything she feels to Ferdinand. On the other hand she offers to be his servant. A contradiction?  Miranda acts out of her place…she kind of adopts a male role in some things.  Miranda and Ferdinand become servants to each other. There is a strong theme of servant and royalty. Hierarchies are very important in this play. Upsetting the hierarchy – Ferdinand and Miranda; promising service to each other. Motifs and Themes Hierarchy – Servants and Masters What constitutes a good servant? Good/bad master? - Play wants to affirm the idea that there should be masters and servants, that there should be good masters in control of things. - We are asked to think about this in the context of the motif of divinity. What is the right kind of God and what isn’t? - Theme of egocentric person who lives for himself and the person who lives for others o Servant does things for others o Prospero does things for himself. - Prospero staged the tempest to bring them together. “It goes on I see as my soul prompts it.” When Prospero is watching the two. Prospero then suggests that everything that happens on the island is because of him, he’s the stage director. He speaks as if he has to go back to study his books in order to further stage-manage everything. Essay – Act III scene ii - Ariel makes the illusion happen (banquet surrounded by dancing spirits and beautiful but strange music). - Ariel makes all the food disappear and he rises up as a harpy and reminds the men of their sins. The whole purpose of the staged illusion was a reminder of the crimes of the past. - This is a world of happiness and you don’t deserve it! - Replay of an experience of loss or deprivation - Alonso becomes totally despairing and thinks he’s ruined everything by marrying off his daughter. Sebastian and Antonio are rather brainless and believe they can kill the thing that is irritating them (Ariel). Gonzalo thinks the three are all heading towards harm (caretaker figure). They all have their distinct jobs. Act 4, Scene i Illusion stage by Prospero with Ariel’s help. Gods and goddesses appear before Prospero abolishes it. Iris and Ceres, etc. This section develops and adds to motifs/themes by: - Sing about fertility and abundance and good fortune for the couple to be. These are harvest gods, so the idea of abundance reminds us of the banquet scene. - Also it introduces the theme of spiritual union as opposed to physical union. Prospero is instructing Ferdinand not to consummate their relationship before they marry. October 15, 12 Shakespeare’s The Tempest Act V  Genres: as both comedy and tragedy o The Tempest in its time was considered primarily a comedy, because it had to do with restoring people to their rightful places. It is concerned with age gaps between old and new and how they can be brought into alignment to remake the world. Plot elements associated more with tragedy: o Themes that are tragic  political themes, which remind us of Macbeth, Hamlet, etc)  Recognition of one’s errors (strong pathos to these recognitions in The Tempest)  Regret as a theme (think Caliban regretting betraying Prospero, Sebastian, etc) Last Lines of the Play: Prospero directly addresses the audience. - Why does Prospero say he needs to be released by the audience’s hands? He invites applause so he can leave the stage (literal meaning); magical tempest world is not very dissimilar from the actual world, so use your hands to work on it (not so literal meaning) Hanging Narrative - Ferdinand and Miranda -> the idea that Ferdinand is cheating at chess is somewhat disturbing as that’s the only thing they really say to each other. We can’t be sure about their future. - We can imagine that Miranda is probably right, and that Ferdinand may be trying to save his pride - Chess itself isn’t just any game for the Renaissance; it is a game of political war, or strategy. It is a political allegory already between these two sides. So it shows conflict between the two sides. It has a connotation of political cheating and reflects back on the whole political level of the plot. Plot structures: reversals and recognitions, and dramatic irony Events that can occur in a story: - Reversals: when a character’s state changes to its opposite. Characteristic of tragedies. Play into the plot – authority of Alonso on the ship in the beginning and the Boatswain. Alonso also points out his reversal later. Ferdinand is another example, since he is enslaved by Prospero and yet he’s supposed to be a prince. Positive reversals: Ferdinand being drawn out of his demand from Ariel and then Miranda. On a larger scale: Milan and Naples are now allies. These reversals move the story along… Recognitions and misrecognitions - Alonso and his wrongdoing, Miranda of Ferdinand’s virtue, Caliban and Stephano as a god - There are Three Recognition and Reversal Plots 1) Prospero facing off against those marooned. 2) Prospero and his almost murder by Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo 3) Ferdinand and Miranda Dramatic irony: when the audience knows something significant that the characters on stage do not. In this case we know who’s alive, who’s doing what, about Prospero, etc. So there’s quite a bit of dramatic irony because of our additional knowledge. The purpose of dramatic irony is to show the limits of individual knowledge. Themes: summary Two Themes that should have emerged: 1) The bondage or submission of self-interest to external ideals. One should submit self-interest to ideas modeled outside of one’s self, for others. Expressed both in political plot and love plot. 2) The role of art. The role of art is to teach and remember those external ideals. It is a stage for modeling, etc. Role of art is to pull you in and push you out (into the space of Prospero’s magic and then pushed out). Preparing to read Homer’s Odyssey  Named for the protagonist  Protagonist: King or warlord of a small Greek island, from way back when, (he could be either remembered or invented…)  Goes to Troy and fights in the Trojan War, but prevented from returning home as Poseidon is angry with him. He is stuck with Calypso on an island, eventually became very homesick. Meanwhile his house was besieged by suitors to win his wife, Penelope, to have that wealth and status.  At the start of the poem, the gods in a council are convinced by Athena that Odysseus should go home so that he may restore order. However he needs to be put through some trial before he can get there.  Odysseus’s wants to find his father, so strikes out to find his father’s friends  Telemachus visiting Menelaus and Pelicis. Book four: the last known plans of Odysseus.  Virtue: think about how Telemachus and the other characters look at each other. o How do they figure out what people are like: friend or foe?  Books nine and ten: Belong to the great wanderings of Odysseus. Odysseus was prevented from coming home, when he finally leaves Calypso’s island, he washes ashore and tells his stories of his wanderings so far to a foreign king or queen and a foreign court. October 17, 12 The Odyssey, Book 4: literary purpose, genre, and form Introducing a purpose of literature: Virtue - How should moral excellence be manifested? How should the good be acted out, realized? - A text can teach a model of virtue, undermine it, play thoughtful with different models of virtue, etc. - Odyssey is swarming with mirrors of Odysseus and his virtue. Characters either invert virtues (leader of the suitors) or are like virtues (Menegian). Introducing a Genre: Epic - A genre traditionally concerned with teaching virtue in some way. - Epic: Two descriptions in the literary terms book. Both of them are useful. General definition: A very long narrative poem on a serious and exalted subject. Narrative just means storytelling, a recounting of events. Narrative doesn’t necessarily mean a sequence of events in chronological order; it is a story as it is told with an personified agents (characters). A narrative can be fiction or nonfiction. - Epic can refer to other things other than poems, like very long novels/other media on serious and exalted subjects. EX: Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, etc. - Second definition of Epic: original meaning of the word. Traditionally an epic isn’t just a long poem, but it is specifically the story of a cultured hero, a protagonist whose adventures and struggles somehow restore/reinvent a whole society (controls its fate). Odysseus is this cultured hero. He has to restore his society; he is a king of many. In order to do this he has to learn what a right society is, not just adventure. - Whether you consider it fiction or not: Bible, Ulysses, etc. October 21, 12 The Odyssey, Book 4 (continued) What we learn with Telemachus o Trace their lineage to the gods in some way, even though they are mortal. At some point there was a ‘divine connection’. Social order is akin to a type of divine order. o The self is expressed in action and gifts. You have to show who you are through actions and gifts. o One has to know one’s proper role. You have to know your limits and how you fit into the world around you. EX: Menelaus, when told how god-like he is, says: “No, you’ve gone too far! You can’t compare me to the Gods!” So he is knows his role and is properly proud of it, though he says no there are limits. Another EX: Menelaus doesn’t bother with the proper sacrificial ritual – so he steps outside of his responsibilities. It doesn’t work so he gets stuck and punished until he corrects it. o Order as a Virtue. Order expressing beauty: there is a lot of emphasis on little things, descriptions of gifts that are gold/silver, etc. Art reflects refinement and order in the social world and the cosmic world. Dancing and singing is also important. Storytelling is also an art, it affects how you are judged. So the art of speech is also important. Speaking is likened to the weaving of words, which is a metaphor that comes up in the Odyssey more than once. It is associated with cleverness, craftiness, manipulation, o Beauty and Order. Expressing of the self in the proper social context. To dissolve into tears is fine in the right place in Homer’s world. Wedding celebration is not the ‘right’ time for tears, so that is stated in book 4 when the woman puts the potion into the drink to make them merry. o The Odyssey and the Great Wanderings  General narrative structure o The narrative voice functions as a third person, omniscient narrator The Odyssey, Book 9  Narrative structure of the books Books 13-24 Books 1-4 Books 5-8 Books 9-12 Great Wanderings  Narrative voice and point-of-view (perspective/focalization) o In book 9 it is a first person narrative rather than in book 4, which was third person. Point of view refers to where the reader is positioned in the imaginative world that is going on. We are with Odysseus in book 9. It is his voice and perspective. o Focalization: think of it as a lens. A channeling of information through a lens from the ‘world’. It is neutral. The focalization can shift, though. o Why have this shift in narration throughout the books? To emphasize that we have to analyze who Odysseus is, his identity. The practical aim is to establish his identity. So up until now he hasn’t revealed much, as it has been through Telemachus. o Odysseus has to do much more work to show who he is because of his appearance as a drifter in book 5.  Narrative pace o Registers how much time passes in an amount of storytelling. o Can pack in several weeks, or thirty seconds, etc. Slowing down and fast-forwarding, and the amount of story time that is devoted to any given episode. o There are three episodes in book 9. Odysseus leaves Troy and the 1) Caiconians (allies of the Trojans) story involves his battle and raiding of the town. 2) Lotus eaters 3) Cyclops episode. First two episodes are short and the last is long. 1) Odysseus’ actions – the problem that he runs into is that they should take off yet his men don’t listen. So they suffer losses because they dwelled too long. We are supposed to learn that Odysseus shows restraint while the men don’t. He knows they’ll organize and attack them, but the men don’t quite get this because they don’t recognize the kind of people they’re up against (civilized peoples) 2) Lotus-eaters. He asks his men to find out who these people are. A new metaphor emerges. “Are they eaters of bread?” So the men get stuck there eating lotus plants. Odysseus forcefully drags the men back to the ship. The problem here is not that the lotus-eaters were civilized, it’s that they weren’t civilized. The lotus-eaters are described as unambitious and in terms of what they eat (as opposed to bread). So they don’t have farming and are thus not an agricultural society, still hunter-gatherers rather than civilized people. One of the dangers of this world is that you forget your proper home and betray their people back home where it’s civilized. Lotus-eaters are associated with: Seduction of material satisfaction as opposed to being embedded in a civilized society, and neglecting submitting oneself to the kinship and society of others. 3) We learn that Odysseus also does not have some restraint he should have. The section of narrative begins with a slowing down of time. Description: the island next to the island that has the Cyclops on it. The purpose of describing this island next to it is to give us a sign that there is a city ripe for development and yet does not hold a city. So that alarms Odysseus and the readers, as this indicates that the Cyclops are not civilized enough to realize this. The Cyclops that they encounter is quite uncultivated and disorderly. Odysseus’ problem: his men want to steal stuff and run away, as they’ve learned their lesson. Odysseus is fascinated by this monster and wonders if he can ally himself with this monster. Instead he gets violence. The two tricks “Nobody” (ironic truth to the Cyclops), and the sheep underhang trick. Blinded for not recognizing the sophistication Analysis of The Odyssey, Book 9  Thematic patterns o Bread being the mark of a civilized society (metaphor comes up in book 10 as well.) October 24, 12 The Odyssey, Book 10 - Narrative structure: pace o Continuation of Odysseus’ wanderings. Book 10 has the same narrative structure and pace as Book 9; it’s all chronological, there are two short episodes and one longer one. In the first two episodes it’s the men who are the problem (though Odysseus may be held at fault in one). In the Circes episode it is Odysseus who does not show restraint. o Aeolus episode: King who has granted power over the winds. The island is described as being very enclosed and everything is like clockwork, so the king is quite orderly. It’s a model of a self-enclosed kingdom. Odysseus tells his stories to the king and gets his help in the form of a bag full of wind. The second part involves him coming back to the king after it backfires (his men get greedy and open the bag to see if Odysseus is hiding wealth, releasing the winds) and the king rejects them because they’re cursed. o There are two mistakes going on: Odysseus mistaking the sight of home for being home, so he sleeps, becoming complaisant too early. The primary fault is with the men, who mistake the bag, thinking it’s wealth (
More Less

Related notes for ENGL 100

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit