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ENGL 100
David Murray

ENGL 100 Tuesday, January 10, 2012 - Scott-Morgan Straker - Watson 436 - Office hours: Wednesdays 1.00-2.30 and 4.00-6.00 - [email protected] - 900-word essay due in Week 4 - 1500-word essay due in Week 10 - Sound distinguishes poetry from prose; is a resource poets can use to create communication - John Donne (1572-1631) Author of Holy Sonnets (1633) - Wrote highly inventive, risqu poetry about sex - Also wrote intensely spiritual poetry, famous sermons - Sonnet Closed form, 14 lines, regular rhyme scheme and rhythm - Most sonnets belong to the lyric genre - What are the main types of sonnet? Italian (or Petrarchan) and English (or Shakespearean or Elizabethan) - Italian Sonnet Divided into an octave and a sestet (a set of 6 lines), each with different rhyme schemes - At the transition to the sestet, there is a volt, or abrupt turn in meaning - English sonnet three quatrains (groups of 4 lines) and a couplet (two rhyming lines) - Typical rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg - Each expresses a single idea - Couplet either summarizes what has gone before - The typical rhythm of sonnets in English iambic pentameter - Five iambs a type of metrical foot, or a unit of poetry in Western traditions - Iambic pentameter verse measured in five iambs, which are a specific type of poetic unit - Metrical feet a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables - Stressed syllables are marked with a macron (), unstressed syllables with a breve () - Main types of metrical foot in English 1) iamb: unstressed + stressed (i.e. My mistresss eyes are nothing like the sun) - 2) trochee: stressed + unstressed (i.e. Peter, Peter, pumpkin-eater) - 3) dactyl: stressed + unstressed + unstressed (i.e. This is the forest primeval) - 4) anapest: unstressed + unstressed + stressed (i.e. Said the Cat in the Hat to the fish in the pot) - 5) spondee: stressed + stressed (i.e. Break, break, break, On thy cold grey stones, O Sea!) - Holy Sonnet #14 English Sonnet (w/ two quatrains and a couplet to end) - Closed form sonnet ENGL 100 th Thursday, January 12 , 2012 - Alliteration repetition of the letter b in the last line of the first stanza - 2 stanza usurped to see something by force unlawfully (?) - William Shakespeare Sonnet 20 - Each line of this poem has 11 syllables - Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool (1960) ENGL 100 Tuesday, January 17, 2012 - Alliteration repetition of sounds (generally consonants) at the beginnings of words - Onomatopoeia use of words that sound like what they denote - Cacophony discordant, unpleasant sounds; lines that are difficult to pronounce - Euphony lines that are pleasant to the ear, flowing, easy to read - End Rhyme rhyming sound occurs at the end of a line - Internal Rhyme rhyming sound occurs within the line - Masculine rhyme (or strong rhyme) rhyming single syllable words, or multi- syllable words that rhyme on the last syllable (i.e. shade/blade) - Feminine rhyme (or weak rhyme) rhyming stressed syllable followed by one or more rhymed unstressed syllables (i.e. attitude/gratitude) - Slant rhyme (or off rhyme, near rhyme, approximate rhyme) sounds are nearly alike but not quite - Consonance identical consonant sound with different vowel sounds (i.e. worth/breath) - Assonance identical vowel sound with different consonant sound (i.e. time and tide) - Eye rhyme words that look the same but sound different (i.e. bough and cough) - William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan - Sonnet, foreshadowing - Gerard Manly Hopkins, Gods Grandeur ENGL 100 Thursday, January 19, 2012 - Alfred Lord Tennyson, The Loto-Eaters - Inspired by a brief episode in Homers Odyssey, Book 9 - Odysseus and his crew, having fought at Troy for ten years and having wandered the Aegean Sea for several years more in an attempt to return home - The lotus is a symbol for opium - Extent to which wealthy, Victorian Londoners debauched themselves in opium dens is probably greatly exaggerated - Tennyson uses the lotus in Homers epic to represent opium addiction, which fascinated Victorians and with which Tennyson had personal experience - Effects of opium euphoria, detachment, relief from stress, relief from pain, decreased inhibitions, sleep, vomiting, catastrophic weight loss, sores, blindness, organ failure, coma, death - Look for ways in which Tennyson uses sound to create a mood in The Lotos- Eaters - First stanza dramatic irony, languid (heavy, tired, droopy) - Afternoon time stands still such as it would for drug addicts, the afternoon is the time where one begins to get tired - Second stanza seductive, appealing to the senses - Third stanza seemd seen a lot throughout the poem, maybe things arent as they appear, why are their faces pale due to narcotic substances, Lotos-eaters are presented in the last line of the stanza, soft and mellow creatures, - Fourth Stanza disconnection from alien shores, the auditory sense beating of a heart, gushing wave so used to relying on our eyes - Fifth Stanza consonance - Choric Song 1 stanza length varies enormously, abab ccc dddd - Sequence of rhyming lines gets longer as well as the length of lines - Choric Song 2 rhyming lines have no such significant pattern, just rhyme now - Choric Song 6 what they describe in this particular stanza actually happens to Odysseus - John Agard playwright, poet, and short story writer -
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