ENSC 201 Lecture 2: ENSC 201 Week 1 Lecture 2

7 views5 pages
ENSC 201 Week 1 Lecture 2
Lecture 2: History & Scope
Environmental Toxicology
relatively new hybrid science
includes aspects of biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics,
geochemistry, organic chemistry, pathology
roots go back to ‘classical’ toxicology (human)
obegan with study of occupational health & epidemiology
Major Differences between classical & environmental toxicology
1. objective
a. protection of humans
b. protection of many diverse species
2. experimental options
a. investigations limited to surrogates (mice, rats, monkeys)
b. multiple organisms, model ecosystems and real ecosystems for direct
experimentation
3. nature of concern
a. focus on the individual – if one human dies, we treat it as a tragedy
b. not all species of concern are known (may protect most ‘valued’
species), effects are managed at a level of populations, communities or
ecosystems
4. dose
a. chemical exposure measured directly by known routes of
administration in one organism
b. dose is not always known/estimated indirectly through
concentrations in air, water, sediment, food etc – focus on controlling
the environment
5. test methods
a. methods to assess exposure, toxicity, and risk are well developed and
standardized
b. methods are relatively new, not consistently standardized, and often
must be adapted to each new species or ecosystem tested
Classical Toxicology & Occupational Diseases
Paracelsus
o‘Miners sickness and other diseases of the miners’ (1567)
Ramazzini
o‘diseases of workers’ (1700)
ofounder of modern occupational and industrial health
Ecotoxicology: Early Signs of Concern – Historical Roots
concerns about environment date back to Roman times
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
air and water in England was a concern in the 1600’s
Arsenic use as a crop pesticide was linked to wildlife deaths in the 1870’s
1924 Carpenter published effects of trace metals from acid mine drainage on
fish
*industrial activity was considered integral to prosperity and pollution was
tolerated
Timeline (**only important ones highlighted)
coal tar, chemical factories (1750-1830)
leaded gasoline, ‘Radium Girls’ lawsuit, 1st large scale survey of pollution in
the US, term ‘greenhouse effect’ coined (1920-1940)
several disasters, ozone depletion, global climate change, Green revolution
o1984 Bhopal gas leak, 1986 Chernobyl, 1989 Exxon Valdez spill
o(1980-1990)
Radium Girls
radium painted onto watch dials during early 1920’s (workers licked
brushes)
2 suspicious deaths, other sick
Consumer League requested investigation
Involvement of the media
Marie Curie concerned, died of radium poisoning in 1934
Radium behaves like calcium and concentrates in bones and teeth
Pollution & Human Health Effects
‘Great Smog’, England 1952
operiod of cold weather combined with anticyclone and windless
conditions
o>4000 deaths attributed to London smog
o>100 000 illnesses
oled to Clean Air Act 1956
goal to reduce smoke pollution by increasing gas & electricity
use
moved smoke-producing power stations to rural locations
The Environmental Movement
commonly dated from the publication of Rachel Carson’s ‘Silent Spring’
‘Elixers of Death’
‘Needless Havoc’
‘And No Birds Sing’
writer and ecologist
US Bureau of Fisheries (1952)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class