Film 240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 1: September 15, 2011
-360 degree social media campaigns JELLO (advertisements, interactive
-Midterm Exam 20% 08:00 – 23:00 Oct. 20 60 Questions
-Final Exam 65%
-Social media participation 10%
Digital IQ social listening – consumer/business intelligence
Campaigns – socially integrated, customizable, personalized, interactive,
built to share (purpose)
Bacardi and Smirnoff campaigns – meant to go viral on the web/Facebook
“Social media togetherness” is not the same as “in-person
Created an app that was gamified.
Social media ecosystem and the friend economy from the wisdom of the
crowds to the wisdom of friends.
The power of friends (online sharing).
Movement from push to pull.
TV ads were interruptive (push)
Facebook page contains magnetic content (pull)
Appointment Consumption – media by appointment
Event programming and cultural unification
Moments in pop culture that UNIFY (Super bowl, Olympics, Oscars,
Elections, Royal Wedding)
Media ON Demand – highly personalized media diet (more choice)
- when our media is on demand (highly accessible)…
1. Demassification of pop culture – fragment audience segments
2. Narrowcasting – niche media (MANY niches – specific media)
Control Revolution – changing everything for consumers
- connected consumers with new expectations
- we now program our own homepages
3C’s of convergence – communication networks/platforms (i.e. Facebook),
the right digital content (socialized, purpose built, sharing), connected devices (smartphones, laptops, ability to consume media anywhere, any
Media multi-tasking multi-screen media use – content anytime,
any channel, any device (simultaneous media use on demand)
Those who use the most internet use the most music, tv, movies, books.
Media use begets media use – the more media we have, the more we want
- its about complementary of media channels not displacement
- we always want more
- any value in our media use?
Big Mac Theory – skyscraper model of media
High culture – classical music, dance
Low culture – gaming?
The best pop culture productions provide a cognitive workout (good for you)
1. Multiple narrative threads
2. Few narrative signposts
3. Complex social networks
HIGHER emotional intelligence gained through pop culture
Tools for media studies
1. Deep dive – delve into details to find trends and insights
- “being mobile means being accessible”
2. Zoom out and consider the bigger picture
- Starbucks and foursquare (deep dive gave them consumer intelligence)
Deconstruction – identify compositional elements
- Representations & social norms
- We need to make media messages strange again, because we are so
familiar with it
- The power of popular media is greater than the sum of its parts
- Detecting patterns through deconstruction - Patterns pop culture productions are agenda setting – tell us what we
should be thinking about
- Luxury brand advertisements make us think about “the good life” Film 240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 2: September 22, 2011
In the “culture as skyscraper” theory in the textbook, “high culture” would
include haute couture
“Big Mac” theory mass media diet, appreciation of fine art
Ambient connectivity (always on becomes an expectation) & smart
devices media convergence (having the devices that allows you to be
Connected cocooning each person has their own private media bubbles
(digitally connected home)
The digital home – expensive (the future good life) gadgets help us
consume more media.
The internet of things – cloud computing
What we consume - 34G of information per person per day (not include the
information we consume at work)
Information/data abundance – a wealth of information creates a poverty of
attention (difficult to focus on all the data)
- research shows we can only read 2 pages intuitively, then we bounce (stop
Attention economy – we are rich if we have someone’s attention (keep
people on your website/content)
Glance theory – we just glance at information and then move on (news,
status updates, TV channels)
Hierarchy of digital distractions – least distracting is anything that has to do
- middle something that happened on Facebook
- top digital pain (dropping phone, black screen)
“It’s official: The average knowledge worker has the attention span of a
sparrow.” we can’t focus on any one thing anymore (attention crisis)
“Once I was a scuba diver in a sea of words, now I zip along the surface.” the time we spend on Facebook/Google affect the way we engage with
each other and the way we think and consume knowledge
Metrics of relevance – personal ways of organizing what we give our
- looking at what our friends think is relevant (social graph)
- selective retention – what is important to remember? What we want to
retain and what we want to bounce through.
- social relationship marketing 10% uplift brand recall (brands need to be on
Communication fatigue – the Tamagotchi trend in social networking (if you
don’t feed your twitter/Facebook, people think you’ve disappeared?)
Social media fatigue – feels like a “chore”
Facebook fatigue – so predictable (yet people are spending more time on
Facebook than ever)
Tech Fast experiment – people felt lost without their technology
FOMO – fear of missing out
Media effects: Theories
Agenda setting – the mass media may not tell us what to think, but it
definitely tells us what to think about
Direct effects theory – Hypodermic needle or magic bullet
- we go through our day and media messages get shot into us (we can’t
really control it)
- powerful media, weak audiences
- used to fuel moral panics
Moral panics focus on children, make connections with this theory
through juvenile delinquency (media, popular culture and social
media connected with violence in children
A moral panic occurs when a segment of society believes that the
behavior or moral choices of others within that society poses a significant
risk to the society as a whole.” By extension, a “techno-panic” is simply a moral panic that centers around societal fears about a specific contemporary
- Technopanic and social networking (gaming) – registered sex offenders on
MySpace creates panic.
- 80% of college students “sext” (17% forwarded it to someone else)
- end of proper language use in our culture?
Third person effect – means that we think we are immune to the effects of
media, yet other people (our friends) aren’t we’re worried about everyone
- young people think 80% of their friends share too much online
5P’s – profs, police, parents, predators, prospective employers
- 77% of Ontario employers screen via Facebook
- social media background checks are becoming more popular
Selective exposure – we will make choices about what media we have time
for thus, we may have a predictable media information diet
- recommendation engines, customized newsfeed
- we don’t get exposure to new ideas because we are each in our own filter
bubble search results, recommendations, and other online data that have
been filtered to match your interests, thus preventing you from seeing data
outside of those interests
- people will never be challenged to think outside the bubble
- selective exposure and the social media echo chamber personalized
- filter bubble allows us to avoid cognitive dissonance
- encourages confirmation bias when we receive new messages, we
interpret them by using what we already value and believe to be true
- “spiral of silence” if you think your viewpoint may be in the minority,
you’re less likely to share it (avoid being the odd man out)
Minimal effects model – media has an effect but not a major effect (media
alone cannot cause people to change their attitudes and behaviour’s).
- mass media reinforce existing attitudes rather than change them
- people on Facebook are more likely to graduate (social capital) Multistep flow model – media affects our opinion leaders (they interpret
media for us and become influencers Oprah, Lady Gaga)
Social learning = imitation
The cultivation effect – cumulative effect of how we see the world
influence by media (perceive reality in ways that are consistent with
portrayals seen on television).
Uses and Gratifications model – says that people are participatory not
passive when it comes to media use (we do things with media messages,
they don’t do things to us)
Methods and Metrics – how do we measure these effects
- content analysis (textual analysis) studies the specific effects of media
messages by coding and measuring media content.
- considers movies and games to be text (count the number of violent acts,
- audience analysis surveys – reveal co-relations not causations
surveys can isolate particular factors, yet they don’t consider all possible
factors (Q’s – who paid for the survey? could influence results)
- psychographics VALS – research that pays attention to values and
lifestyles (Lulu Lemon)
- geo-demographics – segmenting citizens based on where they live
- cohort analysis hello Generation Z, breaking up a generation based on
shared experiences Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 3: Advertising – September 29th
Content analysis - researchers systematically code and count elements of
Survey – results generalizable to a larger population
Third person effect
Consumer Culture – advertising and marketing
- advertising is ambient (it’s everywhere, part of our everyday life)
- popular culture productions are ad-supported
- our generation is more open to advertising (we don’t mind having
advertising if the content is free)
- 84% of GenY (18-34 yrs) don’t notice ads on social sites
- ads don’t affect purchases for GenY as much as the adult population
- good ad skippers (advertisers are getting better at ad and product
integration – reality TV and movies becoming advertisements themselves)
- new expectations of relevancy (search engine marketing – Google is
changing our expectation, teaching us to expect that our ads will be relevant
- SMS marketing – interruption advertising
In-Game Adverts and Product Placement
- Gatorade placed their ads in games (videogames) household spending
on Gatorade increased 25%
- In-game advertising works because it increases realism (non-intrusive).
- 0.5 second exposure will prove brand recall (many place ads in games at
violent scenes to get more attention)
- Appvert’s and gamevert’s
- 26% apps are only used once
Geo-social and Mobile Marketing
- Yelp app (reviews) advertising platform
- word-of-mouth, P2P, local advertising very strong
- geo-local advertising – P2P word of mouth getting reviews from friends
- Groupon friends encourage you to buy in to a deal (local, social
marketing) - Facebook places geo-social mCommerce (Gap giving away jeans for
checking in on Facebook at their store)
- McDonalds – foursquare day (check-in at store and you may win a coupon)
33% increase foot traffic (increase digital IQ)
- Our resistance to mobile advertising is decreasing (mobile marketing)
- teenagers 58% okay
- GenY and GenX 46% okay
- letting people opt out or opt in
- establishing a mutually beneficial relationship between consumers and
- Facebook social advertising (the beacon controversy) online shopping
purchases were pushed to Facebook
- social shopping – revealed gifts on Facebook
- trusted referral model friend feeds and friend filters (things worth
- sponsored stories
- UK made law that no underage people in ads for alcohol
Advertising and Content – separation between the ads and the actual TV
- info-graphics are becoming popular (they are information dents, research
based, and purpose built to share)
- if the ad is awesome, it will be considered content
- personalized advertising (awesome and sharable)
- old spice commercial (personalization by responding to tweeters)
Principles of Virality
- great content
- simple message (easier to remember)
- emotionally provocative
- effortless to share
- tellability: truthiness and weirdness (has to be worth talking about
- the FOMO factor Socialnomics – Erik Qualman
- hierarchy of content sharing (we share in different ways)
- 1. bottom the status update
- tim hortons doesn’t have a high digital IQ
- 2. next found information/objects (fail blog, crazy videos)
- 3. next original user-generated content
Inbound marketing buzz – people are pulling in the content and circulating it
themselves (social sharing and advertising)
- the association principle – taking something we value in culture and
connecting it to the brand
- i.e. Ikea cozy, home
- advertising and nationalism
- emotional sell – move from information to emotional (sexual sell
- vignette adds trying to make us feel not think (rapid succession of
images and catchy music)
- what ads are the most memorable? advertising for alcohol (romance,
adventure, sex appeal, relaxation, popularity, masculinity)
- shock-vertising disturbing images that make us stop and think
trying to interrupt the glance theory (attention economy)
- blip-vert’s brief ads
- can’t watch casually (makes us rewind and rewatch)
Humour is the most popular advertising strategy exercises the
association principle between joy/happiness and the product.
- fear ads – defensive buying (making us feel defensive) inspiring us to
buy their products in order to avoid humiliation, etc.
- band-wagon ads insinuates that theirs a tradition involved and you must
join the trend (invented traditions levis jeans)
- snob appeal best in class (about helping us signify status to each other,
demonstration of best-in-class, brand recognition (big logo’s))
- conspicuous and competitive consumption (need the latest trend) - upscale emulation aspiration purchasing I want to live the good life,
so compare myself to celebrities (buy the same brands that they have)
- prestige economy certain goods are exclusive because they’re scarce
and expensive (brand name products) popular products that aren’t always
- masstige brands prestige, luxury items for the masses (BMW, Coach,
- celebrity endorsements – para-sociality (relationship to celebrity is
transferred to products – associated celebrities with certain brands)
- Ellen DeGeneres and American Express
- Comparison ads (parity products and brand distinction) communicate
unique selling proposition (how its different from another similar product)
- an advertisement that mentions the competitor’s in the ad
- parity products (similar) need unique selling proposition
- stereotypes very powerful cultural mean Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 4: Public Relations
psychographics – values and lifestyles
History: PR circa 1800s about the circus, freak shows, exaggeration,
hype and misrepresentation
- gave out free tickets to their circus shows
1900s beginning of the commercialization of the newspaper
- newspapers used to be about political issues only
- in the 1900s, advertisements entered the papers
- reporters found scandal for the papers (because it sells muckrackers)
Birth of modern PR
- Edward Louis Bernays
- Ivy Ledbetter Lee
- invented media spin creative analysis of the facts (to sway public
opinion toward a more sympathetic point of view, same as employers)
Public Relations & Advertising
- easy to spot ads in newspapers, etc.
- PR is also present (companies send story ideas to journalists/newspapers)
- PR affects the way we view companies, brands, celebrities, etc.
- PR strategic communications between organizations and their various
publics (internal employees, union, etc./external media, general public)
- Branding is not a trade character (trade characters will embody brand
values if done well)
a brand is not a logo (iconic logos McDonalds)
brands are collective perceptions (ideas) – can change as our ideas about
the service, commodity, company change
brands always have stories attached to them – PR departments will
continually tell us stories to try and tell us messages (about the ways we
should think of their brand)
brand romance – certain brands we love (emotional attachment, they
become part of our identity) - loyalty beyond reason brand love (we love products even if it lets us
some brands have charisma – if cultural conversations are constantly
going on around it/about it
- in order to stay charismatic, a brand needs to stay fresh (new stories
attached to it)
Advertising and PR are both about persuasion on mass media channels
yet advertising is paid media attention (TV spot, radio, Internet)
PR is earned media attention (by doing something interesting, pull media,
must engage the public – not only about informing)
Marketing department and PR department were separate divisions way back
when (one paid and one earned (website or app)
third aspect – owned media that a brand “controls” (not full control)
- anytime anything is put into the public realm it is not controlled, the public
controls how they interpret it
New Media Landscape PR2.0
IMC – integrated marketing and communications
Disintermediation – brands are the new publishers and producers
- they don’t have to wait to buy ad space, or radio spots
- getting rid of the middle man
- straight from production to audience client base
Media Relations & PR
- PR press releases (aren’t always boring)
- innovative press releases (i.e. direct mail)
- video news releases brands will create video snippets
- reporter-ready media kit photos, backgrounders, fact sheet, pull-quotes,
charts/stats, story ideas, expert source list
- online media room
Corporate Social Responsibility – doing social good (how is the brand making
a difference in the world PR demonstrates this) - charity initiatives
- Ronald McDonald charity house
“The values that young people seek in their friends applies to brands.”
“Gen Y admires brands which have re-imagined the infrastructure of our
lives or propagated a strong spirit of optimism”
Gen Y is very socially conscious – wants to make an impact in life and work
- brands want to help us do so (Pepsi refresh project)
- about being fake
- fake reviews online (some reviews paid for by brands)
- recommendation engines
PR as a barrier to journalists who are trying to report the truth – trying to
tell us what’s really going on, while PR is there astroturfing
Public Service Announcements
- PR telling brand stories, providing an important message
- not selling, but broadcasting a message
- AT&T Don’t Text While Driving Documentary
- public relations people throw the best parties (making people happy)
- Strut for a Cure in Toronto
- alcohol brands do it best
- exclusivity is powerful create the idea that were invited to a private
event (makes us feel important)
- fake events
- events for publicity
- Snapple’s giant popsicle melting all over NYC
- Hot Wheels
- university had a Groupon offer
- low budget, unexpected, highly visible, controversial - i.e. hiring a streaker
- guerilla stunts
- Charmin publicity stunt (wedding dress made out of toilet paper)
- KFC Double Down campus “assvertising” advertising on students
clothing with companies brand name
- sometimes it goes wrong Toyota marketing through pranks
- Ashley Madison
- controversial marketing
Digital PR – interactive public relations
- managing statversations (conversations that go on between status
- must be active on Facebook, Twitter, etc.
- Skittles public relations fiasco never give up control of your owned
media, never un-moderated media
- 20% of tweets mention brands (hate and love)
- branded conversation
new expectations - 60% want a real-time response
- if we ask for help from a company on twitter, we want a real-time response
- Johnson and Johnson Motrin (weren’t ready to respond to the public
about their new advertisement)
Social Readiness – able to advert disaster
- 50% companies have no plan
- 74% crises were advertable
- have a dark site website ready in case of a product recall/catastrophe
- social media listening eavesdropping on brand conversations
- timely problem-solving (companies responding to your feedback)
- Tahoe wanted people to create their own story/video
misfit content Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 5: October 13, 2011
Corporate social responsibility.
VNR’s are produced by PR pro’s.
In case of a recall or catastrophe a brand might launch a dark site to control
Magazine’s - production, distribution and consumption (digitalization and
- there have been declines in advertising spent and subscription numbers in
the magazine industry
Part 1: Magazine Types
- celebrity magazines are the top selling category
- #1 magazine in terms of newsstand sales is People
- we are experiencing tabloidization (tabloid magazines = large revenues)
General Interest Titles
- Life and Look
- addresses a large audience, broad topics, national (appeal to the masses)
- they manage to inspire cultural conversations (across borders, etc.)
- they give us conversational fodder (sitting in waiting rooms, etc.)
- capture the agenda of our culture (tell us what we should be thinking
- Pass-along readership model large circulation figures (Sports Illustrated)
these magazines pass through 4 adult readers hands per issue
24 million people read them
special magazine issues produce higher pass-along readership (1,000
more copies in general)
People produces special issues (i.e. 50 most beautiful people)
they sell about 20 times more issues
Regional Magazines – varies by region
split-run issues have a foreign title with some local advertising in it (great
for local companies they get exposure)
demographic editions have advertisements that are more relevant to
geological location of distribution
Canadian newsstands imports (75%) and split run (15%) - last 10% are Canadian
Magazines and Nationalism
- influx of Americanism on our newsstands (difficult to find Canadian culture)
Sponsored Magazines – free with purchase (i.e. subscribe to Globe and Mail,
Rogers customer get a free magazine)
National Geographic is a sponsored mag. – join the society, get the
Point of Purchase Titles Family Circle, Woman’s Day (located at checkout)
- having a hard time due to self-serve checkouts
Part 2: Magazine Genres
- most men’s magazines are about fashion, fitness, sports, sex
- Maxim is #1 title in “lifestyle” category
- Wal-mart refused to sell Maxim
Sexual Literacy – cosmopolitan, playboy
- much more diverse market (compared to men)
- cosmopolitan has been best-seller (very influential)
- Bonnie Fuller Canadian magazine editor
- invented the combination of sex + numerology (50 ways to…)
Teen and Tween difficult to make money in this market
- 70% teens said they still read magazines
- wanted to know what trends are popular
Editorial voice of a teen magazine is like a mentor, a best friend or a
sister. it will reassure the reader that they “get” what you care about
- digital natives prefer digital media
Advertorials looks like it has content but is in fact an advertisement (ad
will resemble the layout of the rest of the magazine)
celebrity show is like an adverotiral Complimentary copy – magazines that reflect well on sponsors/advertisers
Martha Stewart magazine (includes her products)
Sexualization young women are targeted by magazine’s that resemble sex
aspirational maturity – young people want to grow up and have that
“freedom”, so they buy specific magazine
Cumulative Effect – bodily dissatisfaction (images are not diverse enough
and its have a negative effect on young people)
- they think they have to look/be like people/celebrities in magazines
- ages 7-14
Regulators is the US EU and UK are agitating for regulations that mandate
that advertisers put a warning that their photo’s were photo-shopped.
Indi-filiation being special yet fitting in (membership in a community).
to meet this need we have lifestyle magazine which encourage us to see
our life as “styable” (stylized life)
- VALS segmentation of audience based on lifestyle choices, income, etc.
- elements of style
individual style – your unique take on how you express yourself through
what you wear, drive, etc.
social styles – the way you try to fit in to a community, class or discipline
Cultural Capital – tell us what kind of shoes to wear to make a certain
impression (how we are read by the commodities and services that we buy)
- with the right cultural capital doors will open
Magazines as Pedagogic – tastemaker, mentor and lifestyle coach
- magazines are instructional, career coaching
Target Market for many lifestyle magazines GenY – we are just
graduating, getting jobs and beginning our lives
News Magazines – current events (became popular around 1920)
- especially during war times
- analyze and explain the significance of cultural events to the public
Muckrakers – shine a light on things that politicians don’t want to deal with - investigative journalists
- look at problematic issues
- news magazines and photo-journalism
- photo’s are manipulated for magazine covers
- #1 news magazine is Time (#2 is Newsweek)
- we have an appetite for celebrity news
- Para-sociality – one way relationship between us and celebrities
Tabloid Currency – makes it rich, good issue
voyeurism, drama, sex, secret, controversy, scandal, testimony
impulse buys for some people, other read it regularly
- accuracy is not as important for tabloids, they need to be the first to break
Part 3: Selling Magazines
- 60% of magazines don’t last a key
- the cover is very important (we buy based on the cover – key advert)
- Wal-mart sells 25% of all magazines
Brick vs. Clicks online magazine selling (40,000 titles that you won’t see
at Wal-mart or Chapters)
Media Convergence – print to television
- TV Guide magazine
- special channels from magazine to television (Cosmopolitan TV)
- Playboy channels (marketing appeals)
- magazine-sponsored TV to keep the brand charismatic and fresh
- deep product integration between show and magazine
Disintermediation – brands become producers
- make your own website, etc. (YouTube channels)
- behind the scenes, “making of” footage
Media Convergence – from print to web
- People is on the web easier to get news out faster
- tons of content on magazine websites (not enough traffic – consumers
aren’t reading it all) advertisers won’t spend the money New Mobility’s – QR codes, apps, maglets (magazine’s on tablets)
- QR codes are everywhere (scan code to go to website)
- branded magazine apps maglets
not very expensive, great magazine experience
- magazine apps too small, don’t need it
- exclusivity Vogue made app featuring exclusive extras, photos
Problem for Magazines – if we have some time (with tablet), will we open a
magazine and read an article? Or would we rather see what going on on
- magazines knows that we’d rather check-in on Facebook
- Flipboard offers personalized social magazine Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 6: October 27th
Age 15 key literacy moment
Pleasure reading amongst young adults is relatively low.
There’s a correlation between reading and higher education (at age 21).
- If you read well at age 15, you will be in higher education at 21.
What about eReading?
- reading email, BBM, Facebook, etc.
- not necessarily reflected in surveys by Stats Canada
- Leisure reading is gendered from childhood Girls are more likely to read
for pleasure than boys.
- 3X more women say they enjoy pleasure reading than men.
- Links between leisure reading and well being “feel-good” read about
escaping the real world.
- Seniors read 3X faster on an iPad. Why? Zoom, don’t have to flip pages,
brighter screen, light weight.
- 20% of eReader owners say they are reading more now than they did
before (media use begets media use).
Who is buying eReader’s?
- From seniors to “twenty-something’s” e-reading demographics
- divided by genre (for awards, etc.)
Trade books – consist of 50% of Canadian sales.
o Biography, cookbook, etc.
o Found at bookstores or online bookstores.
Mass market paperback - $10 - $20
o Consists of 20% of Canadian sales.
o Lots being sold, but not as expensive as trade books.
o Blockbuster authors – sell millions of books.
TV extensions or films.
o Harlequin Enterprises – women’s romance fiction books Export 90% of their inventory.
Published in 26 languages.
High digital IQ selling many eBooks, apps, etc.
o Grew from comic strips.
o 1930’s in the USA from strips to books.
o Marvel comics and DC comics.
o Marvel was purchased by Disney for $4 billion.
o Source of moral panic in the 1950’s too much sex and
violence – linked to juvenile delinquency and behaviour.
o Low cultural value because it formula fiction.
o Niche media production.
Graphic Narratives and “Manga”
o Japanese pop culture from 1920’s.
o Were not for young boys; although they are in that niche in
o There have been more for girls.
o Multi-model literacy – visual literacy as well as just being
literate (appreciation in ambiguity)
o Market experiencing a decline.
o Digital exclusivity – kindle fire (1000 titles available digitally)
Pulled from shelves.
o Centre for disease control created comic about zombies –
because young people are interested in zombies.
Young Adult Books – Gossip Girl series.
o Twilight series – fascination with the supernatural.
o Many publishers now publish supernatural series.
Instant books – created after major events.
o Important to be first, not accurate.
o Published for profit motive.
o Celebrity books – more and more celebrity fiction.
Fascination with celebrities and their culture.
We buy magazines because we want the stories behind
Professional books, textbooks, university presses. o University presses don’t expect to make a profit.
Different kind of reason for publishing books.
o Reference books – shrinking (more and more books being
Online dictionaries, Wikipedia.
o 1 in 4 adults are buying audio books
Most of the books in the audio book industry are for
They talk slow in audio books. K. Don.
o ePublishing and eReading Digitextuality – means that were
becoming more comfortable with having digital books
(reading on screen and in-app).
eBook sales are doubling, while print sales are falling.
eBook readers Kobo, Kindle
eReader’s companies have apps.
Theory of the fraction of selection we will go for
the media that is most convenient/easiest.
eBooks are very easy to get.
Cheaper, don’t have to physically go to bookstore
to buy a book.
Amazon had enormous PR nightmare – deleted books
that people had purchased because they didn’t have the
rights to sell them.
Digital rights management music, books, movies
Digital books and the pass along readership model
don’t necessarily go together.
Not easy to pass along a digital book
sometimes they have locks so you can’t share
Why don’t we want to buy an eReader?
Like having a physical copy.
o Digitizing textbooks publishers are excited.
It will kill the used textbook market.
Some faculties are going completely digital.
Impacts libraries and students with specific needs. Moving towards bookless libraries for the Google
Mainly engineering schools.
Cheaper for libraries to switch to digital. More
Library stacks nostalgic experience, old book smell
Do we get the same experience if everything is
Passive space? Are libraries just a waste of space,
Should we change them to active social spaces
(add cafes, more couches, etc.)
High levels of digital competence and technofluency
we want librarians to help us achieve digital
More intelligent resource management.
Book Sales – shaped by best-seller lists that are published by newspaper
and trade organizations.
These lists drive sales.
If you are nominated for an award accelerates sales (new covers)
Book Stores – moved from independent book stores to online and major
Indigo – 40% of all sales
Heather Riesman – CEO of Indigo doesn’t care if we want to read
digitally or physically (buy physical copy or eBook).
Discoverability lives in physically finding a book you want.
o Stores have being spaces have Wi-Fi, you can just “be”
there in a community space/branded experience.
o Try-sumers phenomenon try things out to see of you like it
(Apple and Ikea)
Independent and Used bookstores – endangered
o Many more title’s in major superstores.
o 20% of Canadian book market.
o Specialized book stores (comic bookstores) Non traditional book retailers (Wal-Mart) between 10-15% of
o Carry between 300-600 titles.
o Discounted books at these locations.
o Carry mainstream best-selling books.
o Have huge volumes in stock. Nobody in the store to guide or
Selling books online up 44% from 2010
o We can look at many reviews, recommendation engines, etc.
o Online booksellers are getting into the publishing business.
o Disintermediation. Cutting out the middle man again.
o Kindle direct publishing self publishing
The Kindle Million Club
Annual book sales in Canada 1.5 billion
What books do we actually buy?
o The long tail effect – we buy mostly the top 10,000 titles
(65%), remaining 400,000 titles (35%)
Online sales gives us more options, more titles.
o Started in 1920’s – book of the month club, etc.
o Came with literary experts who would suggest books for you
o They have moved online. Book clubs as social networks.
o Oprah Winfrey book club, etc.
o Kobo – new world of social reading (recommendations from
our friends, share books, etc.)
Media Convergence – synergy of books into film (Hollywoodization of books).
A lot of drama books. Many kids books made into films.
Harry Potter series subsidiary rights worth $15 billion
Merchandise is important.
Chick literature gets made into chick flicks (romantic comedies).
Comic and Graphic novels to Film Best digital special effects.
A-list directors and celebrities signing on to do movies.
From books to apps.
There are more books than games in the app store.
If we buy books in-app, then part of revenues go to bookstores.
Once you buy an eBook, you will buy another.
Disintermediation Disney becoming a publisher in mobile app
business – creating book apps
Publishers are trying to animate books and they’re selling
o Line between books and film? Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM
Lecture 7: November 3rd
- 50% households have 3+ television.
- 7 in 10 master bedrooms have a television.
- Depends on the type of programming shown in bedroom (reality TV kills
the mood) normally 50% less married sex with TV in bedroom.
- 1 in 4 children have TV’s in their bedroom.
- TV sales were flat in 2011 no change.
- TV’s are on for an average of 8 hours a day.
- Average adult will watch 4-5 hours of TV per day.
- Ages 2-5 watch 32 hours per week.
Educational programming for young children isn’t that effective.
- Ages 6-8 watch 28 hours per week.
- Teens watch 4 hours per day (doesn’t include playback or TV on
About television what will it do to the children.
Screenagers the damage that screen time is doing to teens.
Obesity related to watching TV.
Public service announcements are produced due to moral panics.
o Children need to get out and about and stop watching TV
every day, etc.
- GenY watches 30% less TV.
TV has a pedagogical impact. Inspires, entertains and informs. Sets the
agenda about what we should be thinking about. Shapes history. How we
think about ourselves.
Transmitting sexual literacy’s What is intimacy? What does a relationship
Cultivation FX theory of media use media use sculpts how we see the
world (i.e. watching CSI or Law and Order we think out society is
dangerous). Electronic hearth – making sense.
- When there is tragedy/big news, we go to the television to get
Social cohesion – cultural glue.
- We gather around the TV as a family, etc. Watching major events (cultural
- Example elections.
- Populist technology.
Part 1: Network era (1950’s – 1970’s)
- Up until late 60’s 90% of households would be on the same channels.
Limited broadcasting networks.
Sponsorship scandal mid 1950’s
Revlon was sponsoring a game show – people became aware that the
show was rigged
Trust was lost in network production.
Resulted in law suits and bad press.
Different kinds of programming. Fit for different sponsors.
End of single sponsor TV programming produced by the networks.
Producing TV programming that made sponsors happy – more
diversionary content (entertainment).
Network produced programs
- based on the popularity of magazines (Life and Look)
- Have segments, each segment is sponsored by one or two brands. It’s like
watching a long infomercial (like flipping through a magazine).
- back to the roots of production (scandal)
- voting shows
- closed expert system winner is chosen by the experts (maybe on-screen
- we like the indeterminacy (we’re not sure whose going to win) motivates
- this programming is supposed to get kids back to the TV from the internet Sketch Comedy
- like a variety show (many little skits)
- Saturday Night Live
- show is different each week (with different guests)
- cast of characters that are the same each week
- they react to a situation/problem each week
- stressful problem (because its funny) that is usually resolved by the end of
- main character
- filmed with stunts (collective amnesia stunts repeated year after year)
- about a family
- could be a real family, or a family at work
- very dysfunctional
- comedy arises in how they resolve the situations through their
- deeply developed character (comedy through their interactions)
- can be day-time or prime-time
- big cast of characters that we get attached to (tune in every week)
- melodrama high emotional content
- most contemporary shows have a bit of chapter and serial
- stand-alone episode (plot will start and finish in one episode)
- we can expect a resolution by the end of the show
- we don’t have to watch the episodes in order
- you have to know the backgrounds behind each character (you can’t just
tune into this show randomly)
- if you don’t watch it, it won’t really make sense
- soap opera’s - audience for day-time drama is decreasing
- gaps between the episodes keep us coming back to the show
- refusal of closure