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Film and Media
FILM 240
Sidney Eve Matrix

Film 240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 1: September 15, 2011 -360 degree social media campaigns  JELLO (advertisements, interactive websites, etc.) -Midterm Exam 20%  08:00 – 23:00 Oct. 20 60 Questions -Final Exam 65% -Social media participation 10% Digital IQ  social listening – consumer/business intelligence Campaigns – socially integrated, customizable, personalized, interactive, built to share (purpose) Bacardi and Smirnoff campaigns – meant to go viral on the web/Facebook  “Social media togetherness” is not the same as “in-person togetherness”  Created an app that was gamified. Social media ecosystem and the friend economy  from the wisdom of the crowds to the wisdom of friends.  The power of friends (online sharing). Movement from push to pull.  TV ads were interruptive (push)  Facebook page contains magnetic content (pull) Appointment Consumption – media by appointment  Event programming and cultural unification  Moments in pop culture that UNIFY (Super bowl, Olympics, Oscars, Elections, Royal Wedding) Media ON Demand – highly personalized media diet (more choice) - when our media is on demand (highly accessible)… 1. Demassification of pop culture – fragment audience segments 2. Narrowcasting – niche media (MANY niches – specific media) Control Revolution – changing everything for consumers - connected consumers with new expectations - we now program our own homepages 3C’s of convergence – communication networks/platforms (i.e. Facebook), the right digital content (socialized, purpose built, sharing), connected devices (smartphones, laptops, ability to consume media anywhere, any place) Connected Devices  Media multi-tasking  multi-screen media use – content anytime, any channel, any device (simultaneous media use  on demand) Those who use the most internet use the most music, tv, movies, books. Media use begets media use – the more media we have, the more we want - its about complementary of media channels not displacement - we always want more - any value in our media use? Big Mac Theory – skyscraper model of media High culture – classical music, dance Low culture – gaming? The best pop culture productions provide a cognitive workout (good for you)  Steven Johnson 1. Multiple narrative threads 2. Few narrative signposts 3. Complex social networks HIGHER emotional intelligence gained through pop culture Tools for media studies 1. Deep dive – delve into details to find trends and insights - “being mobile means being accessible” 2. Zoom out and consider the bigger picture - Starbucks and foursquare (deep dive gave them consumer intelligence) Deconstruction – identify compositional elements - Representations & social norms - We need to make media messages strange again, because we are so familiar with it - The power of popular media is greater than the sum of its parts - Detecting patterns through deconstruction - Patterns  pop culture productions are agenda setting – tell us what we should be thinking about - Luxury brand advertisements make us think about “the good life” Film 240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 2: September 22, 2011 In the “culture as skyscraper” theory in the textbook, “high culture” would include  haute couture “Big Mac” theory  mass media diet, appreciation of fine art Media Effects Ambient connectivity (always on  becomes an expectation) & smart devices  media convergence (having the devices that allows you to be convergent) Connected cocooning  each person has their own private media bubbles (digitally connected home) The digital home – expensive (the future good life)  gadgets help us consume more media. The internet of things – cloud computing What we consume - 34G of information per person per day (not include the information we consume at work) Information/data abundance – a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention (difficult to focus on all the data) - research shows we can only read 2 pages intuitively, then we bounce (stop focusing) Attention economy – we are rich if we have someone’s attention (keep people on your website/content) Glance theory – we just glance at information and then move on (news, status updates, TV channels) Hierarchy of digital distractions – least distracting is anything that has to do with work - middle  something that happened on Facebook - top  digital pain (dropping phone, black screen) “It’s official: The average knowledge worker has the attention span of a sparrow.”  we can’t focus on any one thing anymore (attention crisis) “Once I was a scuba diver in a sea of words, now I zip along the surface.”  the time we spend on Facebook/Google affect the way we engage with each other and the way we think and consume knowledge Metrics of relevance – personal ways of organizing what we give our attention too - looking at what our friends think is relevant (social graph) - selective retention – what is important to remember? What we want to retain and what we want to bounce through. - social relationship marketing 10% uplift brand recall (brands need to be on Facebook) Communication fatigue – the Tamagotchi trend in social networking (if you don’t feed your twitter/Facebook, people think you’ve disappeared?) Google+ Social media fatigue – feels like a “chore” Facebook fatigue – so predictable (yet people are spending more time on Facebook than ever) Tech Fast experiment – people felt lost without their technology FOMO – fear of missing out Media effects: Theories Agenda setting – the mass media may not tell us what to think, but it definitely tells us what to think about Direct effects theory – Hypodermic needle or magic bullet - we go through our day and media messages get shot into us (we can’t really control it) - powerful media, weak audiences - used to fuel moral panics  Moral panics focus on children, make connections with this theory through juvenile delinquency (media, popular culture and social problems)  media connected with violence in children  A moral panic occurs when a segment of society believes that the behavior or moral choices of others within that society poses a significant risk to the society as a whole.” By extension, a “techno-panic” is simply a moral panic that centers around societal fears about a specific contemporary technology. - Technopanic and social networking (gaming) – registered sex offenders on MySpace creates panic. - 80% of college students “sext” (17% forwarded it to someone else) - end of proper language use in our culture? Third person effect – means that we think we are immune to the effects of media, yet other people (our friends) aren’t  we’re worried about everyone else - young people think 80% of their friends share too much online  5P’s – profs, police, parents, predators, prospective employers - 77% of Ontario employers screen via Facebook - social media background checks are becoming more popular Selective exposure – we will make choices about what media we have time for  thus, we may have a predictable media information diet - recommendation engines, customized newsfeed - we don’t get exposure to new ideas because we are each in our own filter bubble  search results, recommendations, and other online data that have been filtered to match your interests, thus preventing you from seeing data outside of those interests - people will never be challenged to think outside the bubble - selective exposure and the social media echo chamber  personalized algorithms - filter bubble allows us to avoid cognitive dissonance - encourages confirmation bias  when we receive new messages, we interpret them by using what we already value and believe to be true - “spiral of silence”  if you think your viewpoint may be in the minority, you’re less likely to share it (avoid being the odd man out) Minimal effects model – media has an effect but not a major effect (media alone cannot cause people to change their attitudes and behaviour’s). - mass media reinforce existing attitudes rather than change them - people on Facebook are more likely to graduate (social capital) Multistep flow model – media affects our opinion leaders (they interpret media for us and become influencers  Oprah, Lady Gaga) Klout Social learning = imitation The cultivation effect – cumulative effect of how we see the world  influence by media (perceive reality in ways that are consistent with portrayals seen on television). Uses and Gratifications model – says that people are participatory not passive when it comes to media use (we do things with media messages, they don’t do things to us) Methods and Metrics – how do we measure these effects - content analysis (textual analysis)  studies the specific effects of media messages by coding and measuring media content. - considers movies and games to be text (count the number of violent acts, etc.) - audience analysis  surveys – reveal co-relations not causations  surveys can isolate particular factors, yet they don’t consider all possible factors (Q’s – who paid for the survey?  could influence results) - psychographics  VALS – research that pays attention to values and lifestyles (Lulu Lemon) - geo-demographics – segmenting citizens based on where they live (groupon app) - cohort analysis  hello Generation Z, breaking up a generation based on shared experiences Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 3: Advertising – September 29th Content analysis - researchers systematically code and count elements of media texts Survey – results generalizable to a larger population Third person effect Consumer Culture – advertising and marketing - advertising is ambient (it’s everywhere, part of our everyday life) - popular culture productions are ad-supported - our generation is more open to advertising (we don’t mind having advertising if the content is free) - 84% of GenY (18-34 yrs) don’t notice ads on social sites - ads don’t affect purchases for GenY as much as the adult population - good ad skippers (advertisers are getting better at ad and product integration – reality TV and movies becoming advertisements themselves) - new expectations of relevancy (search engine marketing – Google is changing our expectation, teaching us to expect that our ads will be relevant and permission-based) - SMS marketing – interruption advertising In-Game Adverts and Product Placement - Gatorade placed their ads in games (videogames)  household spending on Gatorade increased 25% - In-game advertising works because it increases realism (non-intrusive). - 0.5 second exposure will prove brand recall (many place ads in games at violent scenes to get more attention) - Appvert’s and gamevert’s - 26% apps are only used once Geo-social and Mobile Marketing - Yelp app (reviews)  advertising platform - word-of-mouth, P2P, local advertising  very strong - geo-local advertising – P2P word of mouth  getting reviews from friends - Groupon  friends encourage you to buy in to a deal (local, social marketing) - Facebook places  geo-social mCommerce (Gap giving away jeans for checking in on Facebook at their store) - McDonalds – foursquare day (check-in at store and you may win a coupon)  33% increase foot traffic (increase digital IQ) - Our resistance to mobile advertising is decreasing (mobile marketing) - teenagers  58% okay - GenY and GenX  46% okay Permission Marketing - letting people opt out or opt in - establishing a mutually beneficial relationship between consumers and brands - Facebook social advertising (the beacon controversy)  online shopping purchases were pushed to Facebook - social shopping – revealed gifts on Facebook - trusted referral model  friend feeds and friend filters (things worth sharing) - sponsored stories - UK made law that no underage people in ads for alcohol Advertising and Content – separation between the ads and the actual TV show/movie, etc. - info-graphics are becoming popular (they are information dents, research based, and purpose built to share) - if the ad is awesome, it will be considered content - personalized advertising (awesome and sharable) - old spice commercial (personalization by responding to tweeters) Principles of Virality - great content - simple message (easier to remember) - emotionally provocative - effortless to share - tellability: truthiness and weirdness (has to be worth talking about  verifiability) - the FOMO factor Socialnomics – Erik Qualman - hierarchy of content sharing (we share in different ways) - 1. bottom  the status update - tim hortons doesn’t have a high digital IQ - 2. next  found information/objects (fail blog, crazy videos) - 3. next  original user-generated content Inbound marketing buzz – people are pulling in the content and circulating it themselves (social sharing and advertising) Advertising Strategies - the association principle – taking something we value in culture and connecting it to the brand - i.e. Ikea  cozy, home - advertising and nationalism - emotional sell – move from information to emotional (sexual sell  successful) - vignette adds  trying to make us feel not think (rapid succession of images and catchy music) - what ads are the most memorable?  advertising for alcohol (romance, adventure, sex appeal, relaxation, popularity, masculinity) - shock-vertising  disturbing images that make us stop and think  trying to interrupt the glance theory (attention economy) - blip-vert’s  brief ads - can’t watch casually (makes us rewind and rewatch) Humour is the most popular advertising strategy  exercises the association principle between joy/happiness and the product. - fear ads – defensive buying (making us feel defensive)  inspiring us to buy their products in order to avoid humiliation, etc. - band-wagon ads  insinuates that theirs a tradition involved and you must join the trend (invented traditions  levis jeans) - snob appeal  best in class (about helping us signify status to each other, demonstration of best-in-class, brand recognition (big logo’s)) - conspicuous and competitive consumption (need the latest trend) - upscale emulation  aspiration purchasing  I want to live the good life, so compare myself to celebrities (buy the same brands that they have) - prestige economy  certain goods are exclusive because they’re scarce and expensive (brand name products)  popular products that aren’t always available - masstige brands  prestige, luxury items for the masses (BMW, Coach, Tiffany, Apple) - celebrity endorsements – para-sociality (relationship to celebrity is transferred to products – associated celebrities with certain brands) - Ellen DeGeneres and American Express - Comparison ads (parity products and brand distinction)  communicate unique selling proposition (how its different from another similar product) - an advertisement that mentions the competitor’s in the ad - parity products (similar)  need unique selling proposition - stereotypes  very powerful cultural mean Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 4: Public Relations  psychographics – values and lifestyles History: PR circa 1800s  about the circus, freak shows, exaggeration, hype and misrepresentation - gave out free tickets to their circus shows 1900s  beginning of the commercialization of the newspaper - newspapers used to be about political issues only - in the 1900s, advertisements entered the papers - reporters found scandal for the papers (because it sells  muckrackers) Birth of modern PR - Edward Louis Bernays - Ivy Ledbetter Lee - invented media spin  creative analysis of the facts (to sway public opinion toward a more sympathetic point of view, same as employers) Public Relations & Advertising - easy to spot ads in newspapers, etc. - PR is also present (companies send story ideas to journalists/newspapers) - PR affects the way we view companies, brands, celebrities, etc. - PR  strategic communications between organizations and their various publics (internal  employees, union, etc./external  media, general public) Branding - Branding  is not a trade character (trade characters will embody brand values if done well)  a brand is not a logo (iconic logos  McDonalds)  brands are collective perceptions (ideas) – can change as our ideas about the service, commodity, company change  brands always have stories attached to them – PR departments will continually tell us stories to try and tell us messages (about the ways we should think of their brand)  brand romance – certain brands we love (emotional attachment, they become part of our identity) - loyalty beyond reason  brand love (we love products even if it lets us down sometimes)  some brands have charisma – if cultural conversations are constantly going on around it/about it - in order to stay charismatic, a brand needs to stay fresh (new stories attached to it) Advertising and PR are both about persuasion  on mass media channels (same platforms)  yet advertising is paid media attention (TV spot, radio, Internet)  PR is earned media attention (by doing something interesting, pull media, must engage the public – not only about informing) Marketing department and PR department were separate divisions way back when (one paid and one earned (website or app)  third aspect – owned  media that a brand “controls” (not full control) - anytime anything is put into the public realm it is not controlled, the public controls how they interpret it New Media Landscape  PR2.0 IMC – integrated marketing and communications Disintermediation – brands are the new publishers and producers - they don’t have to wait to buy ad space, or radio spots - getting rid of the middle man - straight from production to audience client base Media Relations & PR - PR press releases (aren’t always boring) - innovative press releases (i.e. direct mail) - marketwire - video news releases  brands will create video snippets - reporter-ready media kit  photos, backgrounders, fact sheet, pull-quotes, charts/stats, story ideas, expert source list - online media room Corporate Social Responsibility – doing social good (how is the brand making a difference in the world  PR demonstrates this) - charity initiatives - Ronald McDonald charity house “The values that young people seek in their friends applies to brands.” “Gen Y admires brands which have re-imagined the infrastructure of our lives or propagated a strong spirit of optimism” Gen Y is very socially conscious – wants to make an impact in life and work - brands want to help us do so (Pepsi refresh project) Astroturfing - about being fake - fake reviews online (some reviews paid for by brands) - recommendation engines PR as a barrier to journalists who are trying to report the truth – trying to tell us what’s really going on, while PR is there astroturfing Public Service Announcements - PR telling brand stories, providing an important message - not selling, but broadcasting a message - AT&T Don’t Text While Driving Documentary Event Planning - public relations people throw the best parties (making people happy) - Strut for a Cure in Toronto - alcohol brands do it best - exclusivity is powerful  create the idea that were invited to a private event (makes us feel important) Pseudo Events - fake events - events for publicity - Snapple’s giant popsicle melting all over NYC - Hot Wheels - university had a Groupon offer Guerilla Marketing - low budget, unexpected, highly visible, controversial - i.e. hiring a streaker - guerilla stunts - Charmin publicity stunt (wedding dress made out of toilet paper) - KFC Double Down campus “assvertising”  advertising on students clothing with companies brand name - sometimes it goes wrong  Toyota marketing through pranks - Ashley Madison - controversial marketing Digital PR – interactive public relations - managing statversations (conversations that go on between status updates) - must be active on Facebook, Twitter, etc. - Skittles public relations fiasco  never give up control of your owned media, never un-moderated media Word-of-Web - 20% of tweets mention brands (hate and love) - branded conversation  new expectations - 60% want a real-time response - if we ask for help from a company on twitter, we want a real-time response - Johnson and Johnson  Motrin (weren’t ready to respond to the public about their new advertisement) Social Readiness – able to advert disaster - 50% companies have no plan - 74% crises were advertable Crisis Management - have a dark site  website ready in case of a product recall/catastrophe - social media listening  eavesdropping on brand conversations - timely problem-solving (companies responding to your feedback) - Tahoe  wanted people to create their own story/video  misfit content Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 5: October 13, 2011 Corporate social responsibility. VNR’s are produced by PR pro’s. In case of a recall or catastrophe a brand might launch a dark site to control the conversation. Magazine’s - production, distribution and consumption (digitalization and magazines) - there have been declines in advertising spent and subscription numbers in the magazine industry Part 1: Magazine Types - celebrity magazines are the top selling category - #1 magazine in terms of newsstand sales is People - we are experiencing tabloidization (tabloid magazines = large revenues) General Interest Titles - Life and Look - addresses a large audience, broad topics, national (appeal to the masses) - they manage to inspire cultural conversations (across borders, etc.) - they give us conversational fodder (sitting in waiting rooms, etc.) - capture the agenda of our culture (tell us what we should be thinking about) - Pass-along readership model  large circulation figures (Sports Illustrated)  these magazines pass through 4 adult readers hands per issue  24 million people read them  special magazine issues produce higher pass-along readership (1,000 more copies in general) People  produces special issues (i.e. 50 most beautiful people)  they sell about 20 times more issues Regional Magazines – varies by region  split-run issues have a foreign title with some local advertising in it (great for local companies  they get exposure)  demographic editions have advertisements that are more relevant to geological location of distribution Canadian newsstands  imports (75%) and split run (15%) - last 10% are Canadian Magazines and Nationalism - influx of Americanism on our newsstands (difficult to find Canadian culture) Sponsored Magazines – free with purchase (i.e. subscribe to Globe and Mail, Rogers customer  get a free magazine)  National Geographic is a sponsored mag. – join the society, get the magazine Point of Purchase Titles  Family Circle, Woman’s Day (located at checkout) - having a hard time due to self-serve checkouts Part 2: Magazine Genres Men - most men’s magazines are about fashion, fitness, sports, sex - Maxim is #1 title in “lifestyle” category - Wal-mart refused to sell Maxim Sexual Literacy – cosmopolitan, playboy Women - much more diverse market (compared to men) - cosmopolitan has been best-seller (very influential) - Bonnie Fuller  Canadian magazine editor - invented the combination of sex + numerology (50 ways to…) Teen and Tween  difficult to make money in this market - 70% teens said they still read magazines - wanted to know what trends are popular  Editorial voice of a teen magazine is like a mentor, a best friend or a sister.  it will reassure the reader that they “get” what you care about (empathetic) - digital natives prefer digital media Advertorials  looks like it has content but is in fact an advertisement (ad will resemble the layout of the rest of the magazine)  celebrity show is like an adverotiral Complimentary copy – magazines that reflect well on sponsors/advertisers  Martha Stewart magazine (includes her products) Sexualization  young women are targeted by magazine’s that resemble sex  aspirational maturity – young people want to grow up and have that “freedom”, so they buy specific magazine Cumulative Effect – bodily dissatisfaction (images are not diverse enough and its have a negative effect on young people) - they think they have to look/be like people/celebrities in magazines - ages 7-14 Regulators is the US EU and UK are agitating for regulations that mandate that advertisers put a warning that their photo’s were photo-shopped. Indi-filiation  being special yet fitting in (membership in a community).  to meet this need we have lifestyle magazine which encourage us to see our life as “styable” (stylized life) Lifestyle Magazines - VALS  segmentation of audience based on lifestyle choices, income, etc. - elements of style  individual style – your unique take on how you express yourself through what you wear, drive, etc.  social styles – the way you try to fit in to a community, class or discipline Cultural Capital – tell us what kind of shoes to wear to make a certain impression (how we are read by the commodities and services that we buy) - with the right cultural capital doors will open Magazines as Pedagogic – tastemaker, mentor and lifestyle coach - magazines are instructional, career coaching Target Market for many lifestyle magazines  GenY – we are just graduating, getting jobs and beginning our lives News Magazines – current events (became popular around 1920) - especially during war times - analyze and explain the significance of cultural events to the public Muckrakers – shine a light on things that politicians don’t want to deal with - investigative journalists - look at problematic issues - news magazines and photo-journalism - photo’s are manipulated for magazine covers - #1 news magazine is Time (#2 is Newsweek) Supermarket Tabloids - we have an appetite for celebrity news - Para-sociality – one way relationship between us and celebrities Tabloid Currency – makes it rich, good issue  voyeurism, drama, sex, secret, controversy, scandal, testimony  impulse buys for some people, other read it regularly - accuracy is not as important for tabloids, they need to be the first to break the story Part 3: Selling Magazines - 60% of magazines don’t last a key - the cover is very important (we buy based on the cover – key advert) - Wal-mart sells 25% of all magazines Brick vs. Clicks  online magazine selling (40,000 titles that you won’t see at Wal-mart or Chapters) Media Convergence – print to television - TV Guide magazine - special channels from magazine to television (Cosmopolitan TV) - Playboy channels (marketing appeals) - magazine-sponsored TV  to keep the brand charismatic and fresh - deep product integration between show and magazine Disintermediation – brands become producers - make your own website, etc. (YouTube channels) - behind the scenes, “making of” footage Media Convergence – from print to web - People is on the web  easier to get news out faster - tons of content on magazine websites (not enough traffic – consumers aren’t reading it all)  advertisers won’t spend the money New Mobility’s – QR codes, apps, maglets (magazine’s on tablets) - QR codes are everywhere (scan code to go to website) - branded magazine apps  maglets  not very expensive, great magazine experience - magazine apps  too small, don’t need it - exclusivity  Vogue made app featuring exclusive extras, photos Problem for Magazines – if we have some time (with tablet), will we open a magazine and read an article? Or would we rather see what going on on Twitter? - magazines knows that we’d rather check-in on Facebook - Flipboard  offers personalized social magazine Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 6: October 27th Books Age 15  key literacy moment Pleasure reading amongst young adults is relatively low. There’s a correlation between reading and higher education (at age 21). - If you read well at age 15, you will be in higher education at 21. What about eReading? - reading email, BBM, Facebook, etc. - not necessarily reflected in surveys by Stats Canada Pleasure/Leisure Reading - Leisure reading is gendered from childhood  Girls are more likely to read for pleasure than boys. - 3X more women say they enjoy pleasure reading than men. - Links between leisure reading and well being  “feel-good” read about escaping the real world. - Seniors read 3X faster on an iPad. Why? Zoom, don’t have to flip pages, brighter screen, light weight. - 20% of eReader owners say they are reading more now than they did before (media use begets media use). Who is buying eReader’s? - From seniors to “twenty-something’s”  e-reading demographics Book Types - divided by genre (for awards, etc.)  Trade books – consist of 50% of Canadian sales. o Biography, cookbook, etc. o Found at bookstores or online bookstores.  Mass market paperback - $10 - $20 o Consists of 20% of Canadian sales. o Lots being sold, but not as expensive as trade books. o Blockbuster authors – sell millions of books.  TV extensions or films. o Harlequin Enterprises – women’s romance fiction books  Export 90% of their inventory.  Published in 26 languages.  High digital IQ  selling many eBooks, apps, etc.  Comics o Grew from comic strips. o 1930’s in the USA  from strips to books. o Marvel comics and DC comics. o Marvel was purchased by Disney for $4 billion. o Source of moral panic in the 1950’s  too much sex and violence – linked to juvenile delinquency and behaviour. o Low cultural value  because it formula fiction. o Niche media production.  Graphic Narratives and “Manga” o Japanese pop culture from 1920’s. o Were not for young boys; although they are in that niche in America. o There have been more for girls. o Multi-model literacy – visual literacy as well as just being literate (appreciation in ambiguity) o Market experiencing a decline. o Digital exclusivity – kindle fire (1000 titles available digitally)  Pulled from shelves. o Centre for disease control  created comic about zombies – because young people are interested in zombies.  Young Adult Books – Gossip Girl series. o Twilight series – fascination with the supernatural. o Many publishers now publish supernatural series.  Instant books – created after major events. o Important to be first, not accurate. o Published for profit motive. o Celebrity books – more and more celebrity fiction.  Fascination with celebrities and their culture.  We buy magazines because we want the stories behind celebrities (transparency).  Snooki’s book.  Professional books, textbooks, university presses. o University presses don’t expect to make a profit.  Different kind of reason for publishing books. o Reference books – shrinking (more and more books being digitalized).  Online dictionaries, Wikipedia. o 1 in 4 adults are buying audio books  Most of the books in the audio book industry are for adults.  They talk slow in audio books. K. Don. o ePublishing and eReading  Digitextuality – means that were becoming more comfortable with having digital books (reading on screen and in-app).  eBook sales are doubling, while print sales are falling.  eBook readers  Kobo, Kindle  eReader’s companies have apps.  Theory of the fraction of selection  we will go for the media that is most convenient/easiest.  eBooks are very easy to get.  Instant gratification.  Cheaper, don’t have to physically go to bookstore to buy a book.  Amazon had enormous PR nightmare – deleted books that people had purchased because they didn’t have the rights to sell them.  Digital rights management  music, books, movies  Digital books and the pass along readership model don’t necessarily go together.  Not easy to pass along a digital book  sometimes they have locks so you can’t share online/digitally.  Why don’t we want to buy an eReader?  Like having a physical copy. o Digitizing textbooks  publishers are excited.  It will kill the used textbook market.  Some faculties are going completely digital.  Impacts libraries and students with specific needs.  Moving towards bookless libraries for the Google generation.  Mainly engineering schools.  Cheaper for libraries to switch to digital. More space.  Library stacks  nostalgic experience, old book smell  Do we get the same experience if everything is digital?  Passive space? Are libraries just a waste of space, nothing happening.  Should we change them to active social spaces (add cafes, more couches, etc.)  High levels of digital competence and technofluency  we want librarians to help us achieve digital competence.  More intelligent resource management. Book Sales – shaped by best-seller lists that are published by newspaper and trade organizations.  These lists drive sales.  If you are nominated for an award  accelerates sales (new covers) Book Stores – moved from independent book stores to online and major department/retail conglomerates  Indigo – 40% of all sales  Heather Riesman – CEO of Indigo  doesn’t care if we want to read digitally or physically (buy physical copy or eBook).  Discoverability lives in physically finding a book you want. o Stores have being spaces  have Wi-Fi, you can just “be” there in a community space/branded experience. o Try-sumers phenomenon  try things out to see of you like it (Apple and Ikea)  Independent and Used bookstores – endangered o Many more title’s in major superstores. o 20% of Canadian book market. o Specialized book stores (comic bookstores)  Non traditional book retailers (Wal-Mart) between 10-15% of book sales o Carry between 300-600 titles. o Discounted books at these locations. o Carry mainstream best-selling books. o Have huge volumes in stock. Nobody in the store to guide or advise you.  Selling books online  up 44% from 2010 o We can look at many reviews, recommendation engines, etc. o Online booksellers are getting into the publishing business. o Disintermediation. Cutting out the middle man again. o Kindle direct publishing  self publishing  The Kindle Million Club  Amanda Hocking  Annual book sales in Canada  1.5 billion  What books do we actually buy? o The long tail effect – we buy mostly the top 10,000 titles (65%), remaining 400,000 titles (35%)  Online sales gives us more options, more titles.  Book Clubs o Started in 1920’s – book of the month club, etc. o Came with literary experts who would suggest books for you to read. o They have moved online. Book clubs as social networks. o Oprah Winfrey book club, etc. o Kobo – new world of social reading (recommendations from our friends, share books, etc.) Media Convergence – synergy of books into film (Hollywoodization of books).  A lot of drama books. Many kids books made into films.  Harry Potter series  subsidiary rights worth $15 billion  Twilight, Pottermore  Merchandise is important. Date Movies  Chick literature gets made into chick flicks (romantic comedies). Comic and Graphic novels to Film  Best digital special effects.  A-list directors and celebrities signing on to do movies. From books to apps.  There are more books than games in the app store.  If we buy books in-app, then part of revenues go to bookstores.  Once you buy an eBook, you will buy another.  Disintermediation  Disney becoming a publisher in mobile app business – creating book apps  Publishers are trying to animate books  and they’re selling (interactive). o Line between books and film? Film240 – Media & Pop Culture 9/15/2011 2:31:00 PM Lecture 7: November 3rd Television - 50% households have 3+ television. - 7 in 10 master bedrooms have a television. - Depends on the type of programming shown in bedroom (reality TV kills the mood)  normally 50% less married sex with TV in bedroom. - 1 in 4 children have TV’s in their bedroom. - TV sales were flat in 2011  no change. - TV’s are on for an average of 8 hours a day. - Average adult will watch 4-5 hours of TV per day. - Ages 2-5 watch 32 hours per week.  Educational programming for young children isn’t that effective. - Ages 6-8 watch 28 hours per week. - Teens watch 4 hours per day (doesn’t include playback or TV on computers). Moral Panics  About television  what will it do to the children.  Screenagers  the damage that screen time is doing to teens.  Obesity  related to watching TV.  Public service announcements are produced due to moral panics. o Children need to get out and about and stop watching TV every day, etc. - GenY watches 30% less TV. Transmitting Pedagogy TV has a pedagogical impact. Inspires, entertains and informs. Sets the agenda about what we should be thinking about. Shapes history. How we think about ourselves. Transmitting sexual literacy’s  What is intimacy? What does a relationship look like? Cultivation FX theory of media use  media use sculpts how we see the world (i.e. watching CSI or Law and Order  we think out society is dangerous). Electronic hearth – making sense. - When there is tragedy/big news, we go to the television to get information/gather. Social cohesion – cultural glue. - We gather around the TV as a family, etc. Watching major events (cultural crisis) together. - Example  elections. - Populist technology. Part 1: Network era (1950’s – 1970’s) - Up until late 60’s  90% of households would be on the same channels. Limited broadcasting networks. Sponsorship scandal  mid 1950’s  Revlon was sponsoring a game show – people became aware that the show was rigged  Trust was lost in network production.  Resulted in law suits and bad press.  Different kinds of programming. Fit for different sponsors.  End of single sponsor TV programming produced by the networks.  Producing TV programming that made sponsors happy – more diversionary content (entertainment). Network produced programs  Magazine shows - based on the popularity of magazines (Life and Look) - Have segments, each segment is sponsored by one or two brands. It’s like watching a long infomercial (like flipping through a magazine).  Reality TV - back to the roots of production (scandal) - voting shows - closed expert system  winner is chosen by the experts (maybe on-screen or off-screen) - we like the indeterminacy (we’re not sure whose going to win)  motivates spectatorship - this programming is supposed to get kids back to the TV from the internet Sketch Comedy - like a variety show (many little skits) - Saturday Night Live - show is different each week (with different guests) Situation Comedy - Seinfeld - cast of characters that are the same each week - they react to a situation/problem each week - stressful problem (because its funny) that is usually resolved by the end of the episode - main character - filmed with stunts (collective amnesia  stunts repeated year after year) Domestic Comedy - about a family - could be a real family, or a family at work - very dysfunctional - comedy arises in how they resolve the situations through their relationships - deeply developed character (comedy through their interactions) Drama - can be day-time or prime-time - big cast of characters that we get attached to (tune in every week) - melodrama  high emotional content - most contemporary shows have a bit of chapter and serial Chapter - stand-alone episode (plot will start and finish in one episode) - we can expect a resolution by the end of the show - we don’t have to watch the episodes in order Serial - you have to know the backgrounds behind each character (you can’t just tune into this show randomly) - if you don’t watch it, it won’t really make sense - soap opera’s - audience for day-time drama is decreasing - gaps between the episodes keep us coming back to the show - refusal of closure Part 2:
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