GEOL 104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Mica, Volatiles, Overburden Pressure

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Basic building block is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. Four oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion to form a more complex ion. Put them together in different ways and chain them together: more complex silicate structures. Double chains: make amphiboles, 120 and 60 degree angles, different angles of breakage^ Sheets: multiple chains, different group of minerals. Quartz has this shape in its structure: ferromagnesian (dark) silicates. Minerals containing ions of iron and/or magnesium. Magma: the parent material of igneous rocks: igneous rocks. Form as molten rock cools and solidifies. Parent material of igneous rocks is magma. Forms from partial melting of rocks inside earth. Magma that reaches the surface is called lava: extrusive igneous rocks. Form what magma solidifies at the surface. Creates volcanic rocks: intrusive igneous rocks. Form at depth from magma that crystallizes slowly. Molten glob of rocks in the earth. A body of plutonic rock is called a pluton. Generating magma from rock: role of heat.

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