GEOL 104 Jan 11 Lecture.docx

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Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
GEOL 106
David Alan Hanes

Earth-Systems Engineering -Brad R Allenby -Article titled Earth Systems Engineering: The World As Human Artifact -Earth-systems engineering= managing earth systems -Allenby claims that humans have been conducting earth systems engineering… -Lead contamination in Greenland glacier; humans affecting ice sheets at time of Roman empire from Rome. Lead goes up from industrial revolution, but drops after unleaded gasoline begins to be used (lead was found to be poisonous and hazardous in terms of long-term health effects) -“The earth is increasingly a product of human engineering” How does past ESE compare to future ESE? -In past, was more local/less global -In past, regional/global effects were unintended and unanticipated -Recall Aral sea dilemma; started in 1960’s, by 2010 only 3 small water bodies remained Thomas Midgely -“had more impact on the atmosphere than any other single organism in earth history” -In 1921, Midgely found that tetra-ethyl lead reduced engine knocking, therefore invented leaded gasoline -In 1930-31, Midgely invented Freon, the first of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), which destroys ozone when released into atmosphere -Decreased ozone leads to higher radiation coming from the sun, leading to cancer -He was an engineer Coal Production -0 or very little in early 1800’s -Increased somewhat from 1800-1900 -Increased very much between 1900-2000 -Exponential growth -Today produces about 7000 Million tonnes worldwide -Coal is mainly carbon; Burned with oxygen  produces CO2 which is a greenhouse gas -Greenhouse gases warm the atmposphere Metal Production -Steel (iron) and aluminum both increase exponentially from industrial revolution to the present Other -Deforestation of the Amazon -Crops being grown in irrigated desert areas -Compare
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