GEOL 106 Lecture Notes Mar 5.docx

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Department
Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
Course
GEOL 106
Professor
David Alan Hanes
Semester
Winter

Description
Volcanic Hazards Extrusive Rocks -Magma, when it comes out of the ground, will be in one of two forms 1. Lava (liquid) 2.Pyroclastic materials (hot particles) Magmas 1. Felsic: High viscosity (sticky), and high water content (more than 5%) 2. Mafic: Low viscosity (fluid), and low water content (less than 1%) REVIEW FROM GEOL 104 -Magma reaches the surface by coming through either fractures (fissures) or volcanic cones Volcanic Cones -Pipe-like conduit and vent bring magma to surface -Eruptions range from calm to violent; depends on magma composition -3 main types: 1. Cinder cone  Emits pyroclastic material About half a kilometer tall, 2 km wide at base Mafic or felsic composition Very steep slopes 2. Stratovolcano (composite cone) Felsic to intermediate composition Emits lava and pyroclastic material  4-5 km high, 15-20 km wide at base Very steep slopes 3. Shield Volcano Emits lava Composed of mafic materials (fluid) Not steep slopes Calm eruptions 5-10 km high, ~200 km across Formed from basalt layers Which are the most dangerous? Stratovolcanoes -Their magma is felsic or intermediate, therefore has high viscosity and high water content -This leads to high, steep-side
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