GEOL 106 Lecture Notes Mar 8.docx

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Queen's University
Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
GEOL 106
David Alan Hanes

Volcanic Risk Continued Lahars -Volcano-related mudflow -review geol 104 -Ash on flanks of volcano mix with melted snow; flow down steep sides of volcano and river valleys over distances greater than 100 km -Ex Navado Del Ruiz (1985), more than 20,000 died -Mt St Helens (1980), Mount Unzen (1991), Mount Rainier Tsunami -Only occurs when volcanoes are out at sea (island arcs) -Ex Krakatoa (1883) -Can be triggered by a sudden explosion Gases (poisonous) -Various gases can create problems -SO2 can generate sulfuric acid in atmosphere Can lead to acid rain -CO2 can settle in low-laying areas around volcano and suffocate living things (ex Lake Nyos 1986) Caldera Collapse and Supervolcanoes -Review geol 104 -Ex Santorini, 3600 years ago Tsunami hit Crete and ash cloud blew over -Toba 74,000 years ago -Can cover whole continent with ash -Can have global catastrophic effects (climate and weather
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