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GEOL 106 Lecture Notes - Mass, San Andreas Fault

Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
Course Code
GEOL 106

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Readings from textbook. Chapter 2 Earthquakes.
The government of Ontario proposes to build a nuclear
reactor on the shore of lake Ontario near Kingston.
Our task: carry out a RISK ANALYSIS and RISK MANAGEMENT
study, for the government , focused on SEISMIC RISK.
San Andres Fault in San Fransisco
Elastic Rebound Theory
Rigid part of Earth can store Elastic Energy
(Hockey Stick) Applying stress then eventually breaking or
returning to original shape
a) original position
b) buildup of strain
c) slippage
d) strain released
Therefore earthquakes are associated with faults
Earthquakes happen when either
o A fault forms
o There is an episode of Movement on a pre-existing fault
In both cases, stored energy is released!
For a big earthquake fault motion needs to be only a metre or so
Fault Terminology
1. Strike-Slip : Horizontal motion, not up and down , only side
to side (Stress is horizontal , flat)
o The San Andreas Fault
2. Dip-Slip : Generates a Fault Scarp
o Two Types
A) Normal dip slip : “Down a ramp” Think of a
ramp (Stress is pulled out)
B) Reverse dip slip : “Up the ramp” (Stress is
pushed in)
Sub vertical motion
a) b)
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