GEOL 106 Lecture Notes - Mass, San Andreas Fault
DepartmentGeological Sciences and Geological Engineering
Course CodeGEOL 106
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Readings from textbook. Chapter 2 Earthquakes.
• The government of Ontario proposes to build a nuclear
reactor on the shore of lake Ontario near Kingston.
• Our task: carry out a RISK ANALYSIS and RISK MANAGEMENT
study, for the government , focused on SEISMIC RISK.
San Andres Fault in San Fransisco
Elastic Rebound Theory
• Rigid part of Earth can store Elastic Energy
• (Hockey Stick) Applying stress then eventually breaking or
returning to original shape
a) original position
b) buildup of strain
d) strain released
Therefore earthquakes are associated with faults
• Earthquakes happen when either
o A fault forms
o There is an episode of Movement on a pre-existing fault
In both cases, stored energy is released!
For a big earthquake fault motion needs to be only a metre or so
• 1. Strike-Slip : Horizontal motion, not up and down , only side
to side (Stress is horizontal , flat)
o The San Andreas Fault
• 2. Dip-Slip : Generates a Fault Scarp
o Two Types
A) Normal dip slip : “Down a ramp” Think of a
ramp (Stress is pulled out)
B) Reverse dip slip : “Up the ramp” (Stress is
Sub vertical motion
• a) b)
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