GEOL 106 - LEC 2

2 Pages

Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering
Course Code
GEOL 106

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Hazard City • For now, peruse the Map Reading exercise o Introduction o Basic Map Reading o Reading Topographic Maps o Plateau Map o (Nothing needs to be handed in) Hazard City • First assignment will be on EARTHQUAKES o Details given later How do we find the FOCUS of an earthquake? • In other words how far away is the earthquake? • We first need to know what SEISMIC WAVES are and how they behave Seismic Waves • Seismic energy waves radiate out from the FOCUS of an earthquake as BODY WAVES • Some BODY WAVES motion gets transformed into SURFACE WAVE motion when the body waves reach surface • SURFACE WAVES generally cause the most damage at surface o LOVE WAVES move side to side across the land, horizontal o RAYLEIGH WAVES are rotational waves , circular motion  Both are surface waves Let us consider the BODY WAVES in more detail • There are two kinds o P-waves : push-pull (Compress – rarefaction) o S-waves : shear (up and down) What is the VELOCITY of seismic waves? (how fast do they move) And What does the velocity depend on? Vp = square root (( k+4/4 u )/p) Vs = Square root of (u/p) Where p = density k and u = elastic moduli Measure of Elasticity : • K =
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