Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
Queen's (10,000)
GGY (400)
GPHY 101 (100)
Lecture 6

GPHY 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Militarism, Education International, CeleryPremium

Course Code
GPHY 101
Anne M C Godlewska

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 13 pages of the document.
Week 6: Lecture 1
Theme: Food
Current World Issues
Toronto Food Bank
o Food security stress
o Rising by 9% annually
o Who are the folks?
! Seniors 65 and up
! People with career interruptions due to health or accidents
! People with Disability payments
! People who rely on drugs
! People aged 45+ who lost jobs and haven’t regained
! People working $13/hour and 25 hours/week
! Refugees having trouble breaking into the labour market
! People paying rent is so high they can’t afford to eat
o Women earn less than men
! Men earn (median) 1.39 times more than men
o Where are food banks most needed?
! In Ontario: job losses around the 2008-9 recession were largely
centered on the auto industry
! Bug cities where rent is skyrocketing
! In the north- food prices are very high
! Anywhere hit by recession (now Newfoundland, Alberta,
Global Food Security in 2016
What is Global Food Security
o 1974: “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of
basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion if food consumption and
to offset fluctuations in production and prices”
o 1983: “ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and
economic access to the basic food that they need”
o 1986: “enough good for an active, healthy life”
o 1996 World Food Summit: “Food security, at the individual,
household, national, regional and global levels is achieved when all

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Subscribers Only
people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient,
safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food
preferences for an active and healthy life
Major Initiatives
o In 1996 the World Food Summit pledged to cut the number of hungry
people to about 400 million by 2015
! Goal is no where being met
o In 200 the United Nations (U.N) declared its more modest Millennium
Development Goal of halving the proportion of under nourished
people in developing countries by 2015
! Almost within reach
o Since 1996 the U.N, many developing countries, and non-
governmental organizations working together to deal with hunger and
The State of World Hunger, 2016
o About 795 million people world-wide are estimated to be chronically
o Roughly 1 in 9 people world wide
! 100 million since 2002
o The prevalence of undernourishment has gone down from 18.7% to
11.3% globally
o In developing countries, it has gone down from 23.4% to 13.5%
World Food Summit Measures of Food Security
o 1. The availability of food
! quantity, quality, and diversity
! more food is being produced than ever but this does not mean
that world hunger decreases
o 2. How accessible food is
! Infrastructure: roads etc
! Economic access
! Price of foods
o 3. The stability of the food supply
! imports vs local
! investment in the agricultural sector
! political stability and soundness
committed to well being of country
o 4. Food use

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Subscribers Only
! water and sanitation
! # of underweight, wasting, and stunted children
clear indicator of poor food quality
Success in improving Nutrition requires a multi-pronged approach
o Agricultural production and productivity
o Rural development
o Fisheries
o Forestry
o Social protection
o Public work
o Fostering trade and managing markets
o Improving communication between government departments and
different levels of government
o Education
o Health monitoring
o Effecting food security monitoring and sound analysis
A Provisional Success Story: Bolivia
o From 38% undernourished to 19.5% in less than 25 years
o Deeply and lastingly damaged by colonialism especially by the mita
! 1573-1812
! Under Spanish rule
! Where mita prevailed, there is 25% decrease of lower
household income
o Regional warfare that deprives Bolivia of access to the sea
o Bolivia=62% Indigenous (excluded from government)
Since 2005, a Pro-Indigenous Government
o Elected indigenous person
o Nationalized gas a telecommunications industries
o Price controls on goods and service
! Stability for food security
o Land reform
! Land security to people who previously could not make a living
o Redistributing income
o Adopting a constitution that makes the right to food a human right
! Equality to cultural rights
Conclusions: Key Factors in Success
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Subscribers Only