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Lecture 6

GPHY 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Militarism, Education International, CeleryPremium


Department
Geography
Course Code
GPHY 101
Professor
Anne M C Godlewska
Lecture
6

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Week 6: Lecture 1
Theme: Food
Current World Issues
Toronto Food Bank
o Food security stress
o Rising by 9% annually
o Who are the folks?
! Seniors 65 and up
! People with career interruptions due to health or accidents
! People with Disability payments
! People who rely on drugs
! People aged 45+ who lost jobs and haven’t regained
employment
! People working $13/hour and 25 hours/week
! Refugees having trouble breaking into the labour market
! People paying rent is so high they can’t afford to eat
o Women earn less than men
! Men earn (median) 1.39 times more than men
o Where are food banks most needed?
! In Ontario: job losses around the 2008-9 recession were largely
centered on the auto industry
! Bug cities where rent is skyrocketing
! In the north- food prices are very high
! Anywhere hit by recession (now Newfoundland, Alberta,
Saskatchewan)
Global Food Security in 2016
What is Global Food Security
o 1974: “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of
basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion if food consumption and
to offset fluctuations in production and prices”
o 1983: “ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and
economic access to the basic food that they need”
o 1986: “enough good for an active, healthy life”
o 1996 World Food Summit: “Food security, at the individual,
household, national, regional and global levels is achieved when all

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people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient,
safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food
preferences for an active and healthy life
Major Initiatives
o In 1996 the World Food Summit pledged to cut the number of hungry
people to about 400 million by 2015
! Goal is no where being met
o In 200 the United Nations (U.N) declared its more modest Millennium
Development Goal of halving the proportion of under nourished
people in developing countries by 2015
! Almost within reach
o Since 1996 the U.N, many developing countries, and non-
governmental organizations working together to deal with hunger and
malnutrition
The State of World Hunger, 2016
o About 795 million people world-wide are estimated to be chronically
undernourished
o Roughly 1 in 9 people world wide
! 100 million since 2002
o The prevalence of undernourishment has gone down from 18.7% to
11.3% globally
o In developing countries, it has gone down from 23.4% to 13.5%
World Food Summit Measures of Food Security
o 1. The availability of food
! quantity, quality, and diversity
! more food is being produced than ever but this does not mean
that world hunger decreases
o 2. How accessible food is
! Infrastructure: roads etc
! Economic access
! Price of foods
o 3. The stability of the food supply
! imports vs local
! investment in the agricultural sector
! political stability and soundness
committed to well being of country
o 4. Food use

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! water and sanitation
! # of underweight, wasting, and stunted children
clear indicator of poor food quality
Success in improving Nutrition requires a multi-pronged approach
o Agricultural production and productivity
o Rural development
o Fisheries
o Forestry
o Social protection
o Public work
o Fostering trade and managing markets
o Improving communication between government departments and
different levels of government
o Education
o Health monitoring
o Effecting food security monitoring and sound analysis
A Provisional Success Story: Bolivia
o From 38% undernourished to 19.5% in less than 25 years
o Deeply and lastingly damaged by colonialism especially by the mita
system
! 1573-1812
! Under Spanish rule
! Where mita prevailed, there is 25% decrease of lower
household income
o Regional warfare that deprives Bolivia of access to the sea
o Bolivia=62% Indigenous (excluded from government)
Since 2005, a Pro-Indigenous Government
o Elected indigenous person
o Nationalized gas a telecommunications industries
o Price controls on goods and service
! Stability for food security
o Land reform
! Land security to people who previously could not make a living
o Redistributing income
o Adopting a constitution that makes the right to food a human right
! Equality to cultural rights
Conclusions: Key Factors in Success
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