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W11 L1 DEVS Gender and Development .docx

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Global Development Studies
DEVS 100

Global Development Week 11 Lecture 1 Gender and Development What is Gender? - A study of the social construction of difference between men and woman and the relations that emerge from these constructions - NOT about biological sex - Complicated by transgendered, inter-sexed, and lesbian/bisexual identities Why does it matter? - Women are often discriminated against - Gender relations affect men and women - Attitudes towards gender affect ideas and practices of development Key Issues behind Gender and Development - Patriarchy and discrimination against women - Women as agents of change - Development policies and gender - Competing theories of gender Patriarchy? - A social system in which the male is the primary authority figure in social organization and economic decision making - Fathers and sons hold authority over women, children and property - Institutions of male rule and privilege and female subordination - Patrilineal (property and title are inherited by the males) Women Poverty and Vulnerability - Women preform 6% of the worlds work and produce 50% of the food but earn 10% of income and own 1% of property - Women’s nominal wages are 17% lower than men’s - 70% of people below the poverty line are women - Women are concentrated in insecure jobs Discrimination against women - Not unique to the south but often more pronounced  Access to education/training  Access to healthcare  Access to credit/finances  Access to paid labor  Access to political decision making Triple Burden for Women - Work for cash income  Often precarious, informal sector - Unpaid domestic work  Child care, household management - Unpaid community work  Neighborhood associations, etc. Gender and Toilets - 1 in 3 women lack access to safe sanitation - 526 million women have no choice but to go to the toilet out in the open - Puts women at risk of shame, disease, harassment and even attack - Women and girls living without any toilets spend 97 billion hours each year finding a place to go - Everyday around 2,000 mothers lose a child due to diarrhea caused by access to toilets and clean water - At current rates of progress, it will be over 165 years before Sub-Saharan Africa meets its sanitation MDG target, and another 350 years to get universal access Sexual Violence - One women in three will experience violence at some time in her life - Often from a person known to the woman/girl - Sexual violence increases with poverty **Proportion of women who say they have experiences physical abuse by a male intimate in the world  Canada: 29%  Guatemala: 49%  Bolivia: 62%  Zambia: 40%  India: 26-40%  Norway: 18%  South Korea: 38% Trafficking of females still occurs almost ALL OVER the world Invisibility of Women - Women work more unpaid hours than men - At least half of women’s work time is spent on unpaid work  Not included in national accou
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