HIST 121 Lecture Notes - Proletariat, Existentialism, Wage Labour

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
History
Course
HIST 121
Professor
Week 2:
Thomas Hobbes
- Well educated
- Rebelled against scholasticism in the name of a new science
- Men are more akin to animals than to reasonable men
o Leviathan
“ Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a
common power to keep them all in awe, there are in a condition
which is called war. Where every man is enemy to every man and
the life so man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”
- Men are all created equal
o The ability to kill each other
- Hope is found in 2 natural laws
o Deduced reasonably by human behavior
o The social contract
“That a man be willing, when others are so too as far forth as for
peace… to lay down this right to all things and be contented with
so much liberty against other man as he would allow men against
himself”
John Locke
- Men are equal in the state of nature
- Fundamental right to self preservation
o Very peaceful tranquil place
Preserves original law of nature
All people have innate sense of justice and injustice
- To preserve life liberty and property we need government
- The social contact revisited
o Bu though men when they enter into society give up the equality liberty
and executive power they had in the state of nature… yet it being only
with an intention in everyone to better preserve himself, his liberty
and his property. -> You only have a government that is better than the
state of nature
- The right to resist is firmly grounded in the believe that you have an innate sense
of justice -> if you didn‟t have this you could not revolt
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
- Born in modest life
- His father was a citizen
- Fan of a republic
- Had wealthy patroness
- Converted to Catholicism
o Went back to Protestantism
- Abandoned his 5 children
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- The state of nature
o The prepolitical state of nature is nothing less than the garden of Eden
Men and women-> lead these wonderful solitary lives, no property
(no need-> someone takes your tree go find another one)
No traditional families
Men help women make babies, woman raise babies alone
The child leaves the mother and then the mother becomes
independent
No need to talk-> no slavery, no war
o This primitive man is morally superior to his civilized counterpart
o Men are instinctually good but not instinctually reasonable
Feelings and sentiment make you good
If people are left to themselves -> they know exactly what is right
and wrong (the Natural man)
The noble savage
The closer you are to nature-> the better the person you are
o Moral Sentiment replaces morality
“ The first person who having enclosed a plot of land took it into
his head to ay this is mine and found people simple enough to
believe him was the true founder of civil society. What crimes,
wars, murders, what miseries and horrors would the human race
have been spared had someone pulled the stakes or filled in the
ditch and cried out to his fellow men “ do not listen to his
imposter”
o Property tempts men to get out of the state of nature
Makes men band together
Families are formed
People start to associate together
Vices start to creep in
Competition
Too many temptations
- Social Contract (1762)
o “Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains”
-I think I can legitimize this
o Sets out to solve problems-> how do you create a society where people‟s
natural goodness can come out
o Freedom is the key for unlocking man potential
o A person has no right to sell themselves into slavery
It violates what it to be a human being
o Need to be freed from the shackles
Give them popular sovereignty
Their will must reign supreme
o Everybody is joined together to rule
o
- Virtue:
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o Men are naturally good, society ruined them
o We have to construct a new type of good to match the society if we
construct that then they are virtuous
Isaiah Berlin: Two concepts of liberty (1958)
1. Negative freedom: You can do whatever you want as long as it‟s not harming
anyone else
2. Positive Freedom: from all those things that prevent you from being your full self
a. True freedom is unleashing the human personality
Enlightenment:
- it is a complex idea of the intertwining of human freedom and human progress
- the belief that people are limitless
- a vision of hope which can in some instances lead to a beneficial desire to treat
people as equal
- it is also sometimes a dangerous vision leading to the desire to trait human being
as scientific experiments
Tutorial:
- Modernity
Kant:
- Trying to describe enlightenment
- Humans are naturally immature and lazy
o To get out of this we have to use reason and thinking
- Dependence on the guardians
- Immaturity
o A man inability to use his knowledge
o Self imposed when it is part of the lack of knowledge to use courage
- People aren‟t born lazy
o When they are kids they are allowed to be stupid
- It is easy to do what other do then doing our own things
- Enlightenment is against rules and formulas
o Thinking for yourself in relation to religion
o Need free reign in religion
- To be a cleric: You have to be a scholar and you have to make use of ones reason
- To expand knowledge
- How do you deal with a rebellion:
o You need a very strong military state
- The enlightenment happens slowly to avoid rebellion
- Guardians: pastors, soldiers, rulers, physicians
o Anyone in an authoritative position
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Document Summary

Rebelled against scholasticism in the name of a new science. Men are more akin to animals than to reasonable men: leviathan. Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, there are in a condition which is called war. Where every man is enemy to every man and the life so man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short . Men are all created equal: the ability to kill each other. Hope is found in 2 natural laws: deduced reasonably by human behavior, the social contract. Men are equal in the state of nature. Fundamental right to self preservation: very peaceful tranquil place. All people have innate sense of justice and injustice. To preserve life liberty and property we need government. > you only have a government that is better than the state of nature.

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