Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
Queen's (10,000)
HIS (1,000)
Lecture 15

HIST245 Lecture 15: Lecture 15 outline


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 245
Professor
Ana Siljak
Lecture
15

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
HISTORY 245
IMPERIAL RUSSIA
Lecture 15: Crises of Empire
I. Introduction: The Hybrid Empire?
In 18th century when Peter took on title empire, did not have same meaning as it did by 1917. Peter – he
used term empire in historical sense, empire was country with tremendous might and power, and
emperor was ruler fit for the influential country, so Russia according to Peter was an empire.
oAnyone could be king, look at German states, goal was emperor, full status on international
scene.
oInteresting about concept of Peter: Peter’s conquests added little to big picture, Lots of territory
added was before Peter.
oCatherine as well, she adds Polish territories and Crimean region and that’s it, not much added to
the Russian territorial space.
oReally in 19th century that conquest of territory resumes afresh, does so as part of European style
imperial, to conquest as much as possible to incorporate as much as possible to expand access to
resources and population to enhance productivity. Russia begins to consider and reconsider
question of empire – this point means a diverse conglomerate of different ethnic groups and
religions that have to somehow be adminsterateively managed. Imperialism becomes a problem
for Russia, have to deal with rising nationalism challenging power, religious groups challenging
dominate orthodox religion and come up with methods to control religious and ethnic diversity.
oAlso: Russia really never expands with a project of expansion as a whole, starting with Peter and
ending with Nicholas II, series of haphazard moves, each region conquered, for different reasons
with different goals and different experiences needed/military forces needed. No overarching
goal even into late 19th century, no real ideology of imperial colonization as a whole.
oWhat is Russia doing in territories with few Russians, how going to control them, why
controlling them, who rival states trying to wrestle territory from Russia? Becomes part of
conversation at end of 19th century.
oEuropean colonization happens mostly over see, limited by mountains, oceans etc, so small,
Russia has no distinct boundaries or geographical boundaries towards expansion so just keep
going. Vast Eurasian plain where things mostly flat and easy to conquer territory, groups they
encounter are indigenous groups, but unable to mount cohesive resistant to Russian imperial
expansions in the way Europeans tates are able to limit each other. Eastwards- similar to North
American expansion west wards, few geographical and indigenous people with same tragic
consequences for these people located along path. (Genocidal policies inflicted on native people
in Kazan and Siberian people). By time, reached sea of Azov, at edge of expansion.
II. Geography and Expansion
18th century conquest – what Russia has before get to 19th century.
A. North
a. Peter: main goals (had goal for Russia in north) to challenge power Sweden, why chose
Baltic as way to expand. Estonia, Latvia, etc. all about challenging Sweden. Acquisition gave
Russians territorial characteristics, access to Baltic sea (important t- ability to trade with
naval states like England) and additional non-Russian ethnic groups.
i. Gets Estonias, Lithuanias, Latvians, mostly peasant populations in 18th century, but
most significant groups is the Baltic Germans, through conquests of Baltic territories
that get Baltic germans – significant, Nicholas I – use them as loyal members of
Russian bureaucracy, and German Baltic names – portion of them have german
names (bureaucracy up to 19th century).
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

b. 1809 – gets Finland: interesting – they keep autonomy, even after Alexander I experimented
with autonomy for Poland then revoked it, didn’t do so for Finland. Grand duchy preserved
autonomy through 19th century and Russian tsar was Grand duke of Finland and tsar of
Russia, fins had senate and military apparatus, made Fins, like Germans, conscious of
themselves as distinct separate ethnic group. Illustrates haphazard conquest in 18th and 19th
century, conquer them and incorporate them, conquer fins but don’t incorporate, different
regions requires different structures and how empire governed, just part of how it was.
B. South
a. Starts with Peter and conquest of Azov (challenge to Ottoman empires and way of accessing
Black Sea), but Catherine (Greek Project) her successful wars that begin Russians full-
fledged Southern conquest, Crimea becomes colony.
b. Southern regions had massive influx of settlers (Russians and Baltic regions) so Slavic
settlements appeared in Southern region and encountered 2 groups:
i. Crimean Tartars: Muslims, from time of powerful Mongol, fled in wake of Slavic
populations and settlers, some skirmishes that ended in violence, but ethnic cleansing
that resulted in shrinking of number of Tartars in region.
ii. Cossacks: encountered as Catherine made conquest, different story, how militarized
societies who subsisted on farming, horse trading and mercenary warfare, could be
rebellious against Russian state but some became subject to Russian tsar, used in
(policies different, ethnic cleansing vs. incorpotion) into military force, used as border
patrol to keep local populations in check. Unreliable but policy towards them was
quite different.
iii. By 19th century, all conquest through Black Sea will take further south into Caucasus.
C. West
a. Particular with partitions of Poland. North: sticking it to Swedes, south: ottoman, west:
getting rid of troublesome neighbor never liked, Poland.
b. Begins with Catherine and her 3 partitions of Poland, ends when Alexander I takes Napoleon
duchy of Warsaw, makes it into kingdom of Poland and then abolishes it. Conquest of Poland
will see how this has tremendous consequences, most complicated region in terms of 19th
century Russia.
i. With conquest of Poland – Poles who have strong memory of being a very powerful
state historically, they are going to be difficult to subdue, rebellion of 1831, 3
partitions, another one in 1846, but 1863, poles are constantly rising up and causing
tremendous difficulty in terms of pacification. Not just poles.
c. Two other ethnic groups come into Russian territory with that cause empire trouble in
attempt to homogenize – Ukranians and Jews.
i. Ukranians are partly in Russia, but with conquest of Poland, get massive influx of
Ukranian territory (Kiev). Get Ukranian ethnic group that has memory of itself as
distinct region, but in 19th century, develops distinct, powerful anti-Russian sense of
themselves as national group. Become anti-Polish also. Start to begin to think as
themselves as separate with needs for autonomy, or separate language and cause
Russians no end of trouble.
ii. Jewish: begins with conquest of Poland, when Russian acquires significant minority
of Jewish people. Religious question so next week, acocmodations and conflicts
resulted from incorporating Jews.
D. “Accidental Empire”
a. Mean: each territory conquered is for different reasons, some for sticking to Ottomans, or
Swedes or some from removing troublesome state on west, all for different reasons at
different times. That variety of reasons lead to different policies in dealing with questions
such as: (troubled Russians in 18th and 19th century)
i. Should conquered populations convert to orthodoxy?
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

ii. Should they learn the Russian language and should it become official language of
state, or be allowed to administer in own native language?
iii. Should they retain institutions of self-governance or assimilated into existing
institutions?
III. The Caucasian and Asian Territories
A. The Caucasus
a. Conquest of Caucasus complicated, for two main reasons:
i. Mostly mountainous territory, unlike rest of Russian imperial expansion, not so easy.
Not so flat. Mountains= Have intense implications for imperial conquest. Why did
they go into territory anyway?
1. Empire by invitation, Caucasus interesting and 2nd reason hard to conquer:
ii. Different ethnic groups with small territory (byproduct of geography – mountainous
regions develop distinct languages in distinct areas tied to different ethnic groups).
Fundamentally diverse region. What happens:
1. Conflicts intermural are intense, ethnic groups will contend against one
another, and what they do when get into trouble – ask the big powers to step
in, what happens with Georgia.
a. At this point, Kingdom is an orthodox region surrounded by Muslim
ethnic groups, being besieged, sends envoy to St. Petersberg with
request – to Catherine, surrender domain to be on same footing with
Russia, please occupy and portect us. Mark of how complicated region
is that Georgia wasn’t taken up on offer until 1801. Reason – her
expansion into region begins in an attempt to protect her existing azov
and black sea conquest, starting to build (pattern of expansion). 1777 –
starting to build fortifications in Caucasus region to protect Crimean
territories, and as get seiged, more territory is conquered to protect
lines of expansion.
b. 1801 – Georgia is occupied during Alexander I reign.
c. Caucasus conquest is over 79 years.
iii. How does conquest go – annexation of territory provokes ordering hostitlties and
assortment of ethnic groups in region make it difficult to catch (Go into Georgia and
raid, run out, have to keep expanding boundaries), impassable mountain regions make
it easy for gureilla warfare. Throughout 19th century, almost every tsar had to put
rebellion in Caucasus’.
iv. Between 1817-1864, worst times in terms of Russian control over region, highlanders
struggled against Russian troops, raid forts, attack convoys, destroy Russian
settlements, and pacifying region is hard.
v. Checkneian – 1834-1859, Muslim characistmatic leader called Sheikh Shamil, who
units checkens with other ethnic groups and decides to consolidate efforts to lead
guriella style battles against Russian army.
1. Rebels use landscape to advantage, adept at ambushing soldiers, they raid
roads and Russians begin to develop series of tactics to try to pacify these
populations in difficult territories – scorched earth tactics. Raze whole forests
to ground to expose rebels, prevent them from hiding, build enormous
fortresses in clearings they make and have those as places where Russian
army can be protected, in order to punish rebel villages – burn village to
gorund, massacre male members, and ethnically cleanse populations. Push
thme out, destabilize them, prevent them from organizing rebellions.
2. War ends through exhaustion, Shmail decimated, begin to waver in support
and he is captured in 1859. To prevent him from becoming a martyr and
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version