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Lecture 7

HIST 250 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Mawla, Jizya, Muawiyah I


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 250
Professor
Laura Carlson
Lecture
7

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oConquest of Byzantine and Persian territories
Beginning of Ridda Wars (apostasy)
Natural death
Umar I (634-44)
Military Success
oDefeat of Persian Empire
Fundamentals of Islamic Government
oEconomic organization
Establishment of emir system in
conquered areas
Establishment of poll tax
Establishment of pension system (diwan)
Assassinated
oBy his Persian slave
Uthman (644-56)
First of the Umayyad Dynasty
The “unpopular” caliph
oIncreasing dissension among group of Muslims
Power based on Bedouin supporters
Established definitive text for the Qur’an
Assassinated
Ali (656-61)
Seized power upon Ithmans death
Revolt by A’ishah (Muhammads widow) and followers
oAccused of murder of Uthman
The first Imam (leader) of the Shi’ites
Assassinated
Son, Al-Husayn, killed 680
oAshura Commemoration
Mu’awiya (661-80) seizes power
Former emir/governor of Syria
Formal establishment of Umayyad Dynasty
Arabic and Islamic Expansion
oQuestions of unity
Tribal vs. Islamic vs. Arabic identity
Urban basis
oMilitary success
Weakened neighbours
“Luck”
oIslamic Conversion
Respect for “People of the Book”
Payment of Poll Tax (jizya)
Rates of conversion?
Entry into the umma
Non-Arab converts: mawali
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