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Lecture 6

HIST121 - Lecture up to week 6.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 121
Richard Bailey

The Enlightenment Part 1Lecture One 1 IntroductionThe Modern Era 2 Historical ContextsLocal Time Dynastic Politics Stratified Culture ReligionIII What is EnlightenmentLaziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a proportion of men long after nature has released them from alien guidance nonetheless remain in lifelong immaturity It is so easy to be immature If I have a book to serve as my understanding a pastor to serve my conscience a physician to determine my diet for me I do not need to exert myself at allTriumph of rationalityRadical reform Break from religion philosophical nonsenseShedding Light Clarity1783Essay ContestBased on WHAT IS ENGLIGHTENMENTGot recognition from Emmanuel Kant Dare to Know as seen above Mans release from immaturityReinforcing questioningKey to Enlightenment Think freely and be free from prejudicenot accepting knowledge from anyone but criticizing for yourself Separation from the church and the state IV The Triumph of Reason A The Rule of ReligionDavid Hume Of Miracles 1748There are no such things of miracles They contradict experience Bible is unreliable old passed down from word Miracles that violate laws of nature are unaccounted for Voltaire Philosophical Dictionary 1764Liberating the man from Christian dogmaRevealed Truths Man had a powerlessness sense inferior to Godunacceptable for freethinking men of the enlightenmentChristianity was an infamous thinghold it in horror Voltaire Blames Christianity for encouraging ignorance priests were wild beasts and the reason for religious violence Tolerate other peoples ideas everyone has their own truths B The Scientific Method Denis Diderot Encyclopedia 17511780 Natural Law vs Natural LawsNewton was a God in the enlightenments had a notion of a natural world governed by predictable and precise laws certainty and stability in the world Purpose of the encyclopedia to promote revolution in the minds of mend to free them of prejudice Hint The enlightenment saw the human being as legitimate objects of scientific analysis Human beings become objects of studysubjects of their impulses and desires controlling conditions and the environment etcMen are distinguished from animals because of the ability to reason now more often than not make humans more similar than animals than distinguishing humanity from them C The Public Sphere and Popular Sovereignty Republic of LettersSalonsLiterary and intellectual men community who were united by their commonly held desire to learn and knowPamphlets blossomed in Europe books become more widely read and borrowedLibraries become popular and essential Salons sought to bring together wealthy thinkers and writers international affairs especially Paris Popular Sovereigntygovernment should exist in the voice of the public
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