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History 121 Notes - Novemeber 12th 2012.doc

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HIST 121
Richard Bailey

The Catholic Response to Protestantism 12/11/2012 16:33:00 ← Reform Within the Church • Erasmus (1466-1536) – The great Dutch humanist • Work helped to pave the way for reformation • France and Spain remained Catholic o Post-Lutheran inner reformation of Catholicism, to prevent the spread of Protestantism ← Regeneration of religious monastic order • Monasticism: goes back to the middle ages • Many, many monastic orders and they needed renewing every so often • Also, a revival of Mysticism: involves our upward striving to have communion with god. Some might say an actual oneness with God • Two great monastic religions: Buddhism and Christianity, use extreme measure: fasting, abstaining from sleep, extreme meditation etc to get closer to God. People who practice these measure have “experiences” ← St. Theresa of Avila 1515-1582 • Spanish mystic • Had paranormal experiences (out of body experiences) once moving to a convent, wrote about how the soul reaches communion with God o Theresa saw an angel holding a spear o Are there some people more suited to these experiences? Is there a physiological explanation? o Hildegard of Bingen put her visions into artwork • Theresa reforms the Carmelite Order o This was very valuable to the reformation of Catholicism o Theresa devoted her life to this reform o Theresa of Lisieux - another Carmelite nun o Founded the order of barefoot Caremelites o Theresa of Avila sainted only 40 years after her death ← Land of Cockaigne, Pieter Breugel the Elder – 1567 • Dream world where food is so abundant, no one has to work for it. Buildings are made out of food. • Explains that medieval people had a great fear of hunger. Breugel says to deal with this fear, all must over-indulge in times of abundance. Or the other way is not to eat at all. • If the act of gluttony was a sin, then the only way to fix this is to fast for days upon days, but that only angels have the strength to do this. o It was this kind of fasting that leads to hallucinations etc – may explain St. Theresa of Avila’s visions. Fasting had seal of approval from supreme being • However, when they came to eat they would feel such an extreme hunger that it result in them eating spoiled food, bread made from poppy extracts and hemp flour, meat filled with maggots, mushrooms and toadstools which can also explain hallucinations and the belief that they had reached a kind of nirvana. ← Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • Jesuits (1540 – Paul III) • Catholic fifth columns inside Protestant lands • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) o He wrote a spiritual manual “The Spiritual Exercises”, lays out exercises on how to submit to a higher authority o He INSISTS on submission to authority, the hierarchical church o Undergoes severe mortifications: inflicting pain just short of damaging the internal organs, restricts diet to only breads o After many years of being a hermit, he goes to the University of Paris to study predestinarian theology (1533-1534)  Was drawn towards writings of St. Augustine and Thomas of Aquinas • Voyages of St. Francis Xavier o St. Francis Xavier was the great disciple of Ignatius of Loyola o Very well known for carrying the Christian message to Asia o Carried the Catholic banner against Protestantism in Europe, responsible for restoring Catholicism in large parts of Germany ← Reformed Papacy • Took a long time after even reform of Catholicism • Paul III (1534-1549) proved to be turning point in reform of the papacy o Pope Paul appointed Cardinal Gasparo Contarini (who was seen by others such as Cardinal Gian Pietro Caraffa to be secretly Lutheran) to head a committee to look into the state of the church. Commissions report showed the extent of the corruption. Pope Paul tried to repress this report. o Protestants got hold of this report and reprinted it • Regensburg (Contarini and Melanchton) • Caraffa convinced Pope Paul III to establish a Roman Inquistion (Holy Office – 1542). Only reason Contarini escaped charge of heresy and therefore execution was that he died. • Caraffa is still on Index of Prohibited Books (1559) ← Council of Trent – Looked at Reforming the Church • Catholic Ecumenical Council • Invoked by Pope Paul III in 1542 but first convened in 1545 • Took place in Trento, Italy ← Trent on Justification by Faith • Luther: there is nothing we c
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