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Lecture again (9 or something).pdf

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HIST 122
Amitava Chowdhury

Lecture again (9 or something) Tuesday, March 12, 2013 6:31 PM Announcements: 2. Identitybased violence - WWII outline will be on moodle - Research Essay Murder by miniaturization - Identity and violenceassignment - due date: - Religiouswarfare ○ Moved to Tuesday the 26th ○ The Crusades - Final Exam Review and Study Guide ○ 30 years war killed 11 millionpeople ○ Last class is exam review ○ Nigerian Civil War ○ Nothingon exam that isn't on the study guide  Muslimsvs Christians  3 milliondead Goals thisweek:  1967-1970 1. Explorethe meaning of personal and collective identityand understandhow our indivudual,social,and political - Religiouspersecution lives are fraught with issues of identiy ○ One group is too weak to wage a war 2. Examine formsof violencesparked by unitary interpretationsof identify  Mary Queen of England (Bloody Mary) 3. Choose specific case studiesto explore how 'miniaturization'of identityled to wide-scaleviolencein the 20th □ Persecuted the protestants ruthlessly century  Queen Elizabeth I □ KilledCatholics The plan:  Quakers 1. Conceptualizingidentity  German protestants persecuted in Germany 2. Identity-based violence  Revolutionary Mexicoand Soviet Union 3. Case study: The Holocaust □ Killednon-Atheists  Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia 1. Conceptualizing identity: □ Atheismis a crime - Ethnicviolence ○ Rwanda 1994 At home in the world…  Hutuswere the majority Philosophers say there are three fundamental questionswe must consider as human beings:  Tutsi minority - Who are we? As individualsand collectives…  Tutsistraditionallyheld power - What shouldwe do? (How shouldwe live our life,what is good,etc)  Expelled by the hutusin 1950s-1960s - How do we know what we know? (What is the basis of our acquisition of knowledge?)  Tutsismassacred by Hutusin 1994 Some theories…. - Racial constructionand hate grimes - Self-sameness over time: ○ KKK - A baby is born,and a baby grows into a child,into an adult,into death. There is nothingof the baby in the ○ etc adult. Yet, there is a sense of self-sameness that connectsthe baby, to adult. That sameness is our core - Sexual orientationviolence personal identity… It is drawn from the narrative of our life. - Gender violence - Personal Identity - Memory - the basis of personal identity - John Locke >Gender-based violence - Locke was one of the most importantphilosophersin the last 500 years - Woman as property - "I know who I am because I remember what I did." ○ If you considersomethingas property, you can do whatever you want - Our sense of self-sameness over time is drawn from memory of the past - Englishcommonlaw and corporal punishment - The internal and the external identity ○ If the husbandthoughtthe wife needed to be corrected,the husband was allowed to use a - Findingour place throughnegotiationthrough the personal sense of self-sameness and societiesview of who we whip as longas it was not thicker than histhumb. are. We oscillate between the two. ○ Coverature:  During the period a woman was married, she had no legal rights To be is to belong… ○ Indian practiceof Sati: - Every human being has the desire to belong.  Burningthe wife on the funeral fire of a dead husband - Most of our stories in our life stems from the desire to belongto somethinglarger than ourselves ○ Post-emancipationapprentice - Almost nothinghas any meaning in life if we take ourselves outsidesociety  Women were singled out and tortured - Group identity ○ Mary Wollstonecraftfirststood up against violence against women in Britain.Her followers - Professional,linguistic,citizenships,etc… eventually led to the enfranchisementof women - Collective memory - Historicalproduction >Vignettes: Sexual orientation - If you wake up one morningand forget everything about your past, you are lackingidentity.Similarly,if a - Oscar Wilde nation forgets the historyof itself,it lacks identity. ○ Accusation - Queensberry - 1895 - Cultural memory and group identity ○ "Love that does not dare to speak its name."
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