Exam: April 19th
Tuesday, February 26, 2013 Review session the last lecture
Images chosen from future lectures in bonus on exam
Where do we stand?
- Industrial Revolution
- Global Migrations
Plan of the week:
1. The natureof resistance
Draws from research of theprof (unpublished)
2. Emergence of anti-colonial nationalism in the 20th century
3. Base - A case study
1: The natureof resistance
- Original resistance(primaryresistance)
○ Resistance at the moment of colonization
○ Ex: People from Toronto come to colonize Kingston. When we try to stop them, that is primary resistance.
- Once that fails, two groups remain:
○ The dominated and the dominators
The relation is complex, with much overlap; it is not a binary relationship
Mutual relationships and crossovers exist
○ Aspects of domination:
□ Language and traditions change
□ The dominated group starts believing that they are inferior. This is when colonial rule has reached is success
- Domination is always incomplete
○ Dominated always have some freedom
○ whenever there is domination, there will be resistance
○ some day, colonial rule/domination comes to an end
○ Plays out in a complicated way. As colonial rule is weak, resistance is also weak. As colonial rule grows stronger, as does the resistance
The resistance continuum:
Traditionally, scholars studied resistance in the form of resistance to slavery or colonial rule, have always seen a differen ce between passive and active resistance. Passive is: You have been asked/forced to do work, but refuse to do so by saying yo u
don't understand the instructions. Active is when you take up arms in revolution to forcibly win freedom. Some scholarshave found that this difference between the types doesn'tmake sense. Simple forms of passive resistance lead to revolution
First, you have intrusion. Colonizing power arrives at one part of the world that would soon become colonized.
Then, there is primaryresistance, trying to prevent the colonization,followed by failure, making colonial rule take place.
Once primary resistance fails, one of two things might happen. One is called accommodation. Instead of resisting, you accommi date yourself in such a way that your life pattern changes, and agree (unhappily) with the colonizing cause. You become a
The first stage of resistance is individualism. You work in the administrative office of the colonial government. You choose to steal some necessarypapersof the rulers. You refuseto go to war. Individual acts of resistancepreviously described as
'passive' resistance. You then might take revenge, often in violence. Ex: Car bombs injuring innocents. This is seen as terro rism, caused bya dissatisfaction with colonial rule.
In the second stage, group consciousness develops. The acts of resistanceinspire others to join, and they hatch a plot. It m ight be non-violent plots: Eg, strikes. Or it could be an armed revolt.
The third stage: Nationalism is formed as an ideology. Through group movements, they super-imposean ideological structureto start a wide-scale revolution.
Attempting to put the nation back to beforecolonization
Never succeeds. Irreversible changes are made.
This is why most revolutions fail
Also doesn't work.
In terms of anti-colonial movements, there were a succession of events from everyday events that lead to revolt, and finally, revolution.
Resisting colonial rule:
- Individual acts, both passive and active
- Popular protests
- Industrial strikes: people stop working in the factories, and refuseto help their oppressors
- Peasant insurgencies, where people who are not in metropolitan areas/uneducated are the first to rise up in revolt:
○ They are the ones exploited first, and most wholly
- Ameliorative: Improve the condition of the colonized without revolting against colonial rule
○ EX: In India, a campaign was launched by people from Scotland/Ireland/England in the hope that the conditions would be improved for workings in India
- Millenarian movements (mostly in rural areas): Spiritual leaders rise up and gathers "disciples". Suddenly makes a claim that a plague, etc, would hit he colonizers in X amountof time.
○ Trying to imagine a future that will end their oppression,the day never comes
○ In their heart, the followers have a seed of the desire to be free, which can take action in other ways later on
- Cultural resistance:
○ Cooks and farmers maintain their native plants and foods. The pallet of the colonizers is altered, and the food then becomes a staple in the colonial's original land.
The Emergence of Anti-colonial nationalism
Birth of anti-colonial nationalism:
Anti-colonial nationalism is a product of…
India, for example: When colonialism started, there are people there cooperating with the colonizers. Eventually resistance e mergence shows up in individual acts of refusal/resistance. Nationalism is the productof resistance. As they are resisting, they
are reminded of their glorious past, giving them courage and pride to fight for their nation. Accessing your own history to p rovide trust to bring people together. People are gradually figuring out about nationalism in the new world, and this helps t he
nationalist movements within India. By the end of the 19th centuryboth western inspired nationalism and recollection of thei r rich historycombine to form Indian nationalism.
By the first world war, there is a strong sense of anti-colonial nationalism present.
Global context of emerging nationalism:
After the Fall of the Titans in WW2:
An increasing desire of self-determination:
The desire to decide to make a nation of their own
2/3 of Polish people are polish, but the rest are German. They want to reunite with their people, but are not allowed. The sa me is true for the German people of Austria (whole country) and CzSkia (portions)
Dos Page 1 2/3 of Polish people are polish, but the rest are German. They want to reunite with their people, but are not allowed. The sa me is true for the German people of Austria (whole country) and CzSkia (portions)
There is another, bigger problem: What to do with the lands outsideEuropethat were controlled by the central powers:
There are certain areas outsideof Europeand America unable to stand on their own without rule. They should stand under the tutelage of the more established nations. Self-determination is eliminated
Previously held colonies of Germany were split between other powers, etc
The other problem: Lands not controlled by the central powers that were held by the Arab and Jewish nationalies:
Promised by the British