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Week 13 - Lecture - Jan 8.docx

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HIST 122
Greg King

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!!!!!!! Defining industrial revolution: - Was not the beginning of industrialization - Not the beginning of innovation - Not the beginning of economic growth - It was a change in the degree of change - A fundamental continuity Timeframe - Mid-late 18 century to early-mid 19 century - some people say there was a second industrial revolution Defining the process - Series of major technological changes and advances - New modes of transportation - A factory based economy - Accelerated structural change in technology, economy and society - Revolutionized the economy of the west and eventually the rest of the world Inventions and innovations 1. Advances in broad fronts - Iron smelting – cotton – sources of power - Textile, metallurgy, mining, transport, agriculture, and power production - One change brings change in others as well, everything is interconnected (ex. power & mining) 2. Two clusters of inventions - a) before 1733 – newcomer engine, flying shuttle - b) after 1768 – Jenny, water frame, Watt’s engine, seed drill etc. Other innovations - Chemicals alkalis and chlorine - Machine making tools - Paper industry - Gas lighting - Road building - Bridges - Food canning, matchsticks, safety lamps, lawn mowers, vaccination etc. Initial Impact - Initially very limited impact on the economy: from 1760 to 1800 only 0.2% increase in per capita income - Financial constraints due to rapid populations expansion and new wars and taxes - End of independent producers (before people produced in their own homes, so they owned the means of production and now you have industrialists and capitalists who own the means of production) - Harshness of industrial life (had to work long hours in hazardous conditions) - Squalid industrial towns – high mortality Emergence Conditions at the outset - Significant rise in population - Occupational specialization - New navigational technique - Banking system and financial institutions Why Britain? - Single reason theories - Traditional agrarian structures in continent - Difference in English ‘character’ - Hartwell’s constitution theories - Ecological and economical theories - Coal deposits - Iron ore
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