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Lecture 3

Hist 122 Semester 2, Week 3.docx

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Queen's University
HIST 122
Amitava Chowdhury

Semester 2, Week 3 Hist 122 Nineteenth Century Global Migrations th I. Understand the causes of 19 century global migrations: Causes and Context Migration History  Ubiquity  Migration as agents of change – culture, idea, technology 1. Internal contractions 2. Interaction with environment 3. Cross-cultural interactions  Connection through migration  Long-range historical processes and migration Migration: Types (ambiguity of categories)  Involuntary migration o Ex: slaves  Voluntary migrations o Ex: labor movement Categories II (Patrick Manning) 1. Home-community migration o Local level; short scale 2. Colonization o More to another place as settlers 3. Whole-community migration (seasonal and permanent) o Ex: nomadic people 4. Cross-community migration o Not necessarily colonizers; move into other community A curious conjuncture 1830s onward – rate of migration increased dramatically 1. Emancipation of slavery and mass migration 2. Industrial Rev. and global migration  These two not mutually exclusive Abolition: Implementing freedom  “What, except compulsion?” o Where to get labor on plantations  Freedom in six equal parts o Slaves worked 6 days a week o Free slaves on Saturday and get paid o Slaves will save money to buy their freedom  Manumission o Buy each day “in six equal parts”  “Starve them out of idleness” o Tax if they settled outside of plantation  From slaves to apprentices o Actually adopted o Apprentice for 5 years and then freed o 40-45 hours a week for freedom Deceptive Peace  Real ending of slavery…? “O dam tiefs and ol rogues”  The system  Reason behind support only temporarily solved labor vacuum problem  Planters’ cause  Metropolitan cause  worried about violent uprisings  Abolitionists HATED  new form of slavery A new monstrosity  Provisions for apprentices o Had to pay rent  New rules for mothers o No maternity leave  Rules for women o No care for children o Forced into field labor The day freedom came  1838  End of apprenticeship system Experiments with labor  Indentured laborers from Africa  Other sources: o Portugal o Germany o Java o China o India (majority of labor came from here) Industrialization and Migration  Unprecedented multilateral dispersal  New forms of production o Factories  Transportation technology  Unfolded on local and global level  Internal – STEP – external migration II. Migration Trends Who were the migrants?  Settlers (and colonists)  Sojourners: not permanent settlers, but a long time o Ex: missionaries  Itinerants: more from place to place o Ex: tradesmen  Laborers III. Case Studies A. Indentured servants Labor Migration  Causes: o Push factors o Pull factors Of pu
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