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Lecture 6

Hist 122 Semester 2, Week 6.docx

5 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 122
Professor
Amitava Chowdhury

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Semester 2, Week 6 Hist 122 The First Total War I. The Path to the Great War WWI: The Very Basic Facts  July 1914 – Nov 1918  28 Allied and Associated powers vs. 4 Central Powers  Nationalist aspirations, international imperial rivalries, flexible alliance systems  A „total war‟  Industrial war  Unprecedented casualties – 15 million died, 20 million injured  Economic and political consequences The path to war  June 28, 1914  assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand  1908 – Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia  Slavic countries rebelled against German A-H majority The other side of patriotism  Rise of nationalism (self-determination)  The Ottoman Empire and the Balkan area o “Sick man of Europe” o Falling apart and being taken up by Russia or A-H  Pan-Slavism o Forming own nation or connect to Serbia o The Black Hand  Power Blocs o Serbia supported by Russia o A-H supported by Germany  Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1908) by A-H o Slavic movements intensified National Rivalries  Anglo-German industrial race o 1831 – 32% GB industrialized dominance o 1914 – GB and Germ. Industrialization equal  Escalating naval race (dreadnoughts) between GB and Ger.  Disputes over colonies: GB vs. Rus; GB vs. FR; GB vs. Ger; Ger vs. FR  Crises and local wars: Morocco (1905); Balkan Wars (1912-1913)  Identity, newspapers, awkwardness o Nationalism  arrogant nationalism o Desire to be the best nation 1879 – Dual Alliance with Ger and A-H 1892 – Italy joins Triple Alliance 1915 – Italy joins GB and FR 1907 – GB and Res and FR make Triple Alliance Guns of August  23 July  A-H empire gives ultimatum to Serbia  Agree to everything except relinquishing sovereignty  28 July  A-H declares war on Serbia  Two factors: alliance systems and mobilization plans o FR – Plan 17 --- 2 fold o Ger – Schlieffen Plan --- 2 fold 1. Attack Western front (i.e. FR) 2. Attack Eastern front (i.e Rus)  Chain reardion o 3 Athust – Ger declares war on FR o 4 August – GB tells Ger to withdraw from Belgium; Ger declines; GB declares war on Ger The August Euphoria  “This war is fine and just and great” – Alain Fournier  Most believed war would end in weeks or at most a few months  Only poor dreaded the war o Knew they would suffer War of Attrition  War came to standstill between GB and FR against Ger  No gain between either side  Trench system The War Spreads  1914 – begins in Europe  1915 – spreads to global war  Three reasons: 1) Embroiling the colonies a. Provided soldiers 2) New human reserves 3) Japan, US, and the Ottomans a. Japan begins Eastern war  Japan declares war on Ger (Aug 23, 1914) o Took over Ger occupations in China o Began taking over Ger colonies in Pacific  War on Ger colonies in Africa o Standstill here too Battle of Gallipoli – 25 April 1915  Largest battle outside of Europe  Thomas Lawrence (1908-1914) and Churchill believed they can go through waters by Greece to supply Rus  Water mines  Stalemate The US e
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