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Lecture 6

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Queen's University
HIST 122
Ariel Salzmann

Week 6- The Mongols and the World 16 October, 2012 The Mongol Legacy: The Modern State System The Mongols and Old World Globalisation (Themes) -Common Pathogenic Environment -Larger, More Centralised States -A new technology of Warfare -Reason for collapse of the Mongol empire is due to the plague Rats, Fleas and Plague -First outbreak: China, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia 1320s -Plague strikes Muslim cities, moves with it -After 1347: Europe up to 1/3 of the population dies Virgin Soil Epidemics A population with no immunities is exposed to a disease -the youngest and weakest die off -in agrarian societies this means a breakdown in food productions -famine results and other diseases prey upon weakened population -over time some people develop some degree of immunity Genghis Khan (d. 1227 CE) Strategies of Conquest Effective as a military force because: -take advantage of the disunity in the more established politics in Muslim, Eastern European, and Chinese worlds. -excellent military organized, personal mission, horsemanship -tactics: retreat and entrap, take no prisoners, ultimatum surrender or mass death -as the army reaches its logistical limits, make alliances with weaker states (eg Muscovy) After the Mongols, Big, Big States -Europe-> The Grand Duchy of Muscovy (1283-1547) -The Middle East-> The Ottoman Empire (1326-1922) -> The Safavid Empire (1501-1722) (Iran) -India-South Asia-> The Mughals (1526-1857) -East Asia-> The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) China: The Ming (1368-1644) -the Hongiou Emperor (Zhu Yuanzhang) (d. 1398) -Warlords -specific ethnic ethos -created own dynasty -defeated by a group that came over the Great Wall -built on the Mongols Beijing -the palace: 1406-1420, residence of the Ming dynasty -over 720,000 sq. meter of floor space -more than 8700 rooms surrounded by 10m walls and a 52m wide moat -symbol of power In South and West Asia, included the Moghols, Savio and Ottoman Empire -The Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahan (d. 1666) for his wife, Mumbaz Mahal (completed in 1648) The Ottoman Empire th -Sultan Mehmet II (reigned mid-15 century) -mixed laws -standing armies -bureaucracy -religious tolerance -with the advancement of cannons was able to take Constantinople -huge cannons built alongside of the walls Medieval Japanese Bow Meets Gunpowder -Chinese used gunpowder for centuries -oil was used in Middle East as a weapon -Mongols invented bombs to be used on the battlefield “The Mongol Bomb” (1293) -from the bow and arrow principle to cylinder. More cannon like. 14 Century Europe, still experim
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