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November 5th.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 124
Professor
Steven J Maynard
Semester
Fall

Description
Rebellion, Reform, and the Triumph of Liberalism Monday November 5, 2012 Huge change from 1800-1850: how did this change come to be? Through revolution. Economic and political change that gives rise to rebellion and also, reforms in response to the rebellions. Next week: social implications. Lower Canada Economics: The birth rate in Lower Canada from the late 18 to early 19 th century hit 50/1000 population. Post war “baby-boom”: 24/1000. The increase of population makes interest for industry such as markets. Montreal loses role of fur trade: fur trade is moving farther and farther west, thus more expensive. The fur trade is out—timber is in. Not only is the economics changing—now we see a shift in the workforce: people are being paid for labour—wage, a characteristic of capitalist society. Midge bug comes in and infects the wheat—large reports of starvation. Lots of families are forced out of the country side from their land with the expulsion of the seigneurial system— forced to the city. Immigrants bring in disease—mixing in with cities of Montreal and Quebec. Creating the perfect storm for an 1837 rebellion. Upper Canada Economics: John Graves Simcoe—wants to build Upper Canada to be reflective of Britain, proving that the states were wrong. His system highlighted by “the family compact”. Land: crown reserves, clergy reserves, and military reserves for those who served. Military officers could receive up to 5,000 acres, others in the army could reserve 200—no rules. Immigrants received 200 acres, but with many rules--build a home, clear a portion, build a road. Some officers and people in the clergy felt they would hold on to their land to pertain value—usually didn’t occupy the land. Empty, very valuable land, while immigrants are performing hard labour to only clear 1.5-3 acres per year. When wheat prices collapsed, UC farmers also had issues—the family compact had massive plots of land while everyone is struggling. In the 1830s political unease as the lower assembly, although elected had no power over the legislative assembly or any branch as they are all appointed by the governor. Lower Canada Politics: French Canadians dominate the lower assembly—they feel down put as a higher level, English were placing them down. English dominated higher levels of government and also over 60% of the merchant market. Louis-Joseph Papineau: Middle class, wealthy man. However, understood the discontent of the French Canadians. Had passionate speeches, which compelled many. Government adopts his 92 resolutions. 10 resolutions passed to allow the governor to take money from the assembly without gaining their permission. November of 1837, rebellion finally breaks out. Troops sent in to crush the rebellion. Rebels win at st. denis but Britain takes st-Charles. Thousands of rebels arrested. Upper Canada: Alexander Lyon Mackenzie publishes attacking the family compact. Gains political wings through his reform idea. Gains control of the assembly. Every time the assembly passes something to improve farmers—executive members always vetoed. This gains more members and Mackenzie starts to get more radical. Wants to rid of bug land companies and also ban
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